Browse Articles

  • Brief Communication |

    A genome-wide association study of delay discounting (DD) on 23,127 subjects found that genotype accounted for 12% of variance in DD; the DD genetic signature overlapped with ADHD, schizophrenia, depression, smoking, personality, cognition and weight.

    • Sandra Sanchez-Roige
    • , Pierre Fontanillas
    • , Sarah L. Elson
    • , Anita Pandit
    • , Ellen M. Schmidt
    • , Johanna R. Foerster
    • , Gonçalo R. Abecasis
    • , Joshua C. Gray
    • , Harriet de Wit
    • , Lea K. Davis
    • , James MacKillop
    •  & Abraham A. Palmer
  • Resource |

    Using single-cell RNA-sequencing, the authors record snapshots of the dynamic sensory-experience-dependent transcriptome across all cell types of the visual cortex in mice exposed to a light stimulus. The authors note diverse cell-type-specific programs in pyramidal neuron subtypes and robust non-neuronal responses that may regulate experience-dependent neurovascular coupling and myelination.

    • Sinisa Hrvatin
    • , Daniel R. Hochbaum
    • , M. Aurel Nagy
    • , Marcelo Cicconet
    • , Keiramarie Robertson
    • , Lucas Cheadle
    • , Rapolas Zilionis
    • , Alex Ratner
    • , Rebeca Borges-Monroy
    • , Allon M. Klein
    • , Bernardo L. Sabatini
    •  & Michael E. Greenberg
  • Article |

    The authors investigate grid cell dynamics after removal of a border between two environments. Near the transition between environments, grid fields changed location, resulting in local spatial periodicity and continuity between the original maps.

    • Tanja Wernle
    • , Torgeir Waaga
    • , Maria Mørreaunet
    • , Alessandro Treves
    • , May-Britt Moser
    •  & Edvard I. Moser
  • Article |

    Grid cell activity may subserve path integration, but a direct link is lacking. The authors selectively disrupt retro-hippocampal region grid cell activity and show that disrupted grid cell firing impairs performance in a path integration task.

    • Mariana Gil
    • , Mihai Ancau
    • , Magdalene I. Schlesiger
    • , Angela Neitz
    • , Kevin Allen
    • , Rodrigo J. De Marco
    •  & Hannah Monyer
  • Article |

    Long-lasting synaptic plasticity is regarded as a mechanism for learning and memory. Using genetically engineered mice in which the C-terminal domains of AMPA receptor subtypes are switched, the authors reveal that GluA1 and GluA2 differentially regulate synaptic plasticity and contribute to different forms of learning.

    • Zikai Zhou
    • , An Liu
    • , Shuting Xia
    • , Celeste Leung
    • , Junxia Qi
    • , Yanghong Meng
    • , Wei Xie
    • , Pojeong Park
    • , Graham L. Collingridge
    •  & Zhengping Jia
  • Article |

    The authors show that Munc13-1 molecules form multiple supramolecular self-assemblies that serve as vesicular release sites. Having multiple Munc13-1 assemblies affords a stable synaptic weight, which confers robustness of synaptic computation.

    • Hirokazu Sakamoto
    • , Tetsuroh Ariyoshi
    • , Naoya Kimpara
    • , Kohtaroh Sugao
    • , Isamu Taiko
    • , Kenji Takikawa
    • , Daisuke Asanuma
    • , Shigeyuki Namiki
    •  & Kenzo Hirose
  • Brief Communication |

    The authors live-image zebrafish myelin sheath Ca2+ activity in vivo and find that high-amplitude long-duration Ca2+ transients precede calpain-dependent sheath retractions while frequent low-amplitude short-duration transients drive sheath growth.

    • Marion Baraban
    • , Sigrid Koudelka
    •  & David A. Lyons
  • Article |

    The mosquito-borne ZIKA virus triggers microcephaly in human newborns. The authors report that the microcephaly results from induction of endoplasmic stress that interferes with generation and survival of projection neurons in the cerebral cortex.

    • Ivan Gladwyn-Ng
    • , Lluís Cordón-Barris
    • , Christian Alfano
    • , Catherine Creppe
    • , Thérèse Couderc
    • , Giovanni Morelli
    • , Nicolas Thelen
    • , Michelle America
    • , Bettina Bessières
    • , Férechté Encha-Razavi
    • , Maryse Bonnière
    • , Ikuo K. Suzuki
    • , Marie Flamand
    • , Pierre Vanderhaeghen
    • , Marc Thiry
    • , Marc Lecuit
    •  & Laurent Nguyen
  • Technical Report |

    The authors present a new computational approach to automatically annotate, analyze, visualize and easily share whole-brain datasets at cellular resolution, based on a scale-invariant and interactive mouse brain reference atlas. The authors applied this framework to define the organization and cocaine-induced activity of corticostriatal circuits.

    • Daniel Fürth
    • , Thomas Vaissière
    • , Ourania Tzortzi
    • , Yang Xuan
    • , Antje Märtin
    • , Iakovos Lazaridis
    • , Giada Spigolon
    • , Gilberto Fisone
    • , Raju Tomer
    • , Karl Deisseroth
    • , Marie Carlén
    • , Courtney A. Miller
    • , Gavin Rumbaugh
    •  & Konstantinos Meletis
  • Resource |

    The protein composition of excitatory synapses differs in the areas of the human neocortex controlling language, emotion and other behaviors. This neocortical postsynaptic proteome data resource can be used to link genetics to brain imaging and behavior.

    • Marcia Roy
    • , Oksana Sorokina
    • , Nathan Skene
    • , Clémence Simonnet
    • , Francesca Mazzo
    • , Ruud Zwart
    • , Emanuele Sher
    • , Colin Smith
    • , J. Douglas Armstrong
    •  & Seth G. N. Grant
  • Article |

    Humans can deliberately control the timing of their actions but the neural mechanisms underlying such control are largely unknown. In this article, Wang, Narain and their colleagues report that such flexibility emerges in rhesus monkeys from the ability of their brain to flexibly control the speed at which cortical responses unfold in time.

    • Jing Wang
    • , Devika Narain
    • , Eghbal A. Hosseini
    •  & Mehrdad Jazayeri
  • Comment |

    As technology advances, whole genome sequencing (WGS) is likely to supersede other genotyping technologies. The rate of this change depends on its relative cost and utility. Variants identified uniquely through WGS may reveal novel biological pathways underlying complex disorders and provide high-resolution insight into when, where, and in which cell type these pathways are affected. Alternatively, cheaper and less computationally intensive approaches may yield equivalent insights. Understanding the role of rare variants in the noncoding gene-regulating genome through pilot WGS projects will be critical to determining which of these two extremes best represents reality. With large cohorts, well-defined risk loci, and a compelling need to understand the underlying biology, psychiatric disorders have a role to play in this preliminary WGS assessment. The Whole Genome Sequencing for Psychiatric Disorders Consortium will integrate data for 18,000 individuals with psychiatric disorders, beginning with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, along with over 150,000 controls.

    • Stephan J. Sanders
    • , Benjamin M. Neale
    • , Hailiang Huang
    • , Donna M. Werling
    • , Joon-Yong An
    • , Shan Dong
    • , Goncalo Abecasis
    • , P. Alexander Arguello
    • , John Blangero
    • , Michael Boehnke
    • , Mark J. Daly
    • , Kevin Eggan
    • , Daniel H. Geschwind
    • , David C. Glahn
    • , David B. Goldstein
    • , Raquel E. Gur
    • , Robert E. Handsaker
    • , Steven A. McCarroll
    • , Roel A. Ophoff
    • , Aarno Palotie
    • , Carlos N. Pato
    • , Chiara Sabatti
    • , Matthew W. State
    • , A. Jeremy Willsey
    • , Steven E. Hyman
    • , Anjene M. Addington
    • , Thomas Lehner
    •  & Nelson B. Freimer
  • News and Views |

    To decide how much we would like to eat a food item, our brain automatically decomposes it into constituent nutrients. The quantities of the different nutrients are represented in distinct parts of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and then integrated by the medial orbitofrontal cortex to provide a global value judgment.

    • Mathias Pessiglione
    •  & Antonius Wiehler
  • News and Views |

    A leaky blood–brain barrier may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. Chronic stress is shown to alter blood–brain barrier permeability, allowing an inflammatory response to penetrate the brain. The deficit is mostly around the nucleus accumbens, an area central to motivation. The affected animals exhibit features of depression.

    • E. David Leonardo
    •  & Alex Dranovsky
  • News and Views |

    Sommeijer et al. describe a previously unrecognized role of the thalamus: development of inhibition in the thalamus regulates ocular dominance plasticity, a form of critical-period plasticity regulation previously ascribed solely to the cortex.

    • Brian B. Jeon
    •  & Sandra J. Kuhlman
  • Review Article |

    The authors propose a new framework for the thalamus in cognition. They review findings from rodents and primates, emphasizing thalamic control of functional cortical connectivity, its putative mechanisms and role in flexible construction of task-relevant cortical networks.

    • Michael M. Halassa
    •  & Sabine Kastner
  • Brief Communication |

    Most species exhibit instinctive risk-avoidance, e.g., lab mice avoid predator smells despite having never encountered predators. Here the authors show how innate risk-avoidance arises from accumbal dopamine receptor neurons tuned by orexin signals.

    • Craig Blomeley
    • , Celia Garau
    •  & Denis Burdakov
  • Article |

    Like all terrestrial mammals, humans emit body odors that subtly communicate emotions. This study suggests that adults with autism may be misreading these chemical signals and that this may explain a portion of their social difficulties.

    • Yaara Endevelt-Shapira
    • , Ofer Perl
    • , Aharon Ravia
    • , Daniel Amir
    • , Ami Eisen
    • , Vered Bezalel
    • , Liron Rozenkrantz
    • , Eva Mishor
    • , Liron Pinchover
    • , Timna Soroka
    • , Danielle Honigstein
    •  & Noam Sobel
  • Article |

    Apicco and colleagues show that reducing TIA1 inhibits tau-mediated neurodegeneration and improves survival in a mouse model of tauopathy. This rescue occurs with a transition in tau aggregation from oligomeric to fibrillar forms of tau. These findings suggest a key role for RNA binding proteins in the pathophysiology of tau.

    • Daniel J. Apicco
    • , Peter E. A. Ash
    • , Brandon Maziuk
    • , Chelsey LeBlang
    • , Maria Medalla
    • , Ali Al Abdullatif
    • , Antonio Ferragud
    • , Emily Botelho
    • , Heather I. Ballance
    • , Uma Dhawan
    • , Samantha Boudeau
    • , Anna Lourdes Cruz
    • , Daniel Kashy
    • , Aria Wong
    • , Lisa R. Goldberg
    • , Neema Yazdani
    • , Cheng Zhang
    • , Choong Y. Ung
    • , Yorghos Tripodis
    • , Nicholas M. Kanaan
    • , Tsuneya Ikezu
    • , Pietro Cottone
    • , John Leszyk
    • , Hu Li
    • , Jennifer Luebke
    • , Camron D. Bryant
    •  & Benjamin Wolozin
  • Resource |

    Quantitative mass spectrometry was used to produce a proteomic survey of postnatal human brain regions. Compared to matched RNA-seq, protein levels showed more regional variation, especially for membrane-associated proteins in the neocortex.

    • Becky C. Carlyle
    • , Robert R. Kitchen
    • , Jean E. Kanyo
    • , Edward Z. Voss
    • , Mihovil Pletikos
    • , André M. M. Sousa
    • , TuKiet T. Lam
    • , Mark B. Gerstein
    • , Nenad Sestan
    •  & Angus C. Nairn
  • Article |

    Experience-dependent plasticity in the visual system has widely been considered to be exclusively cortical. Using chronic two-photon Ca2+imaging of individual thalamic boutons, Jaepel et al. now report that dLGN cells projecting to mouse visual cortex show pronounced ocular dominance plasticity after monocular deprivation.

    • Juliane Jaepel
    • , Mark Hübener
    • , Tobias Bonhoeffer
    •  & Tobias Rose
  • Article |

    The authors show that oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus are key regulators of fluid homeostasis that suppress fluid intake when activated, but do not decrease food intake after fasting or salt intake after salt depletion.

    • Philip J. Ryan
    • , Silvano I. Ross
    • , Carlos A. Campos
    • , Victor A. Derkach
    •  & Richard D. Palmiter