Browse Articles

  • Article |

    The critical period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the visual cortex is initiated by maturation of inhibition. The authors show that thalamic relay neurons in mouse dorsolateral geniculate nucleus also undergo OD plasticity. This process depends on thalamic inhibition and is required for consolidating the OD shift in visual cortex.

    • Jean-Pierre Sommeijer
    • , Mehran Ahmadlou
    • , M. Hadi Saiepour
    • , Koen Seignette
    • , Rogier Min
    • , J. Alexander Heimel
    •  & Christiaan N. Levelt
  • Article |

    Animals must detect noxious stimuli to initiate protective behavior, but the evolutionary origin of nociceptive systems is poorly understood. The authors reveal a core function for TRPA1 in noxious heat transduction based on sensing H2O2 and ROS and demonstrate its conservation from planarians to humans.

    • Oscar M. Arenas
    • , Emanuela E. Zaharieva
    • , Alessia Para
    • , Constanza Vásquez-Doorman
    • , Christian P. Petersen
    •  & Marco Gallio
  • Article |

    Neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (but not the frontal eye fields) appear to maintain working memory information when disrupted by a transient distractor, not by using an immutable persistent code but by morphing from one persistent code to another. This code-morphing may provide the lateral prefrontal cortex with cognitive flexibility.

    • Aishwarya Parthasarathy
    • , Roger Herikstad
    • , Jit Hon Bong
    • , Felipe Salvador Medina
    • , Camilo Libedinsky
    •  & Shih-Cheng Yen
  • Article |

    Davis et al. report that fear memories can be critically regulated by parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the basolateral amygdala. Silencing these interneurons following fear memory extinction caused a reemergence of fear expression that was accompanied by increased activation of fear-encoding neurons and fear-associated 3–6 Hz oscillations within a basolateral amygdala–prefrontal cortex circuit.

    • Patrick Davis
    • , Yosif Zaki
    • , Jamie Maguire
    •  & Leon G Reijmers
  • Article |

    The authors show how predictive representations are useful for maximizing future reward, particularly in spatial domains. They develop a predictive-map model of hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid cells that captures a wide variety of effects from human and rodent literature.

    • Kimberly L Stachenfeld
    • , Matthew M Botvinick
    •  & Samuel J Gershman
  • News and Views |

    Central amygdala directs behavioral responses to emotionally salient stimuli. While most studies have focused on aversive responses, some central amygdala neurons promote feeding and are positively reinforcing.

    • Yoav Livneh
    •  & Mark L Andermann
  • News and Views |

    Upon injury of the developing mouse cerebellum, endogenous repair mechanisms can heal the brain and prevent behavioral motor deficits. At the right time, with the right cues, the brain can repair itself.

    • Baptiste N Jaeger
    •  & Sebastian Jessberger
  • News and Views |

    Inputs to the central complex, the navigation center of Drosophila, are strongly modulated by the visual stimulus history. These history effects carry forward to bias turning behavior when flies choose between two visual stimuli.

    • Mai M Morimoto
    •  & Aman B Saleem
  • Article |

    The mechanisms of gliotransmitter release and their impact on neuronal signaling have remained largely elusive. The authors describe two functionally non-overlapping v-SNARE-dependent astrocytic release pathways that oppositely control synaptic strength at presynaptic sites. Thus, astrocytes are able to fine-tune fast glutamatergic neurotransmission and control fundamental processes of synaptic communication.

    • Yvonne Schwarz
    • , Na Zhao
    • , Frank Kirchhoff
    •  & Dieter Bruns
  • Article |

    Astrocytes differentially regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the CeM, the major output nucleus of the amygdala. Astrocytes thereby reduce neuronal activity in the CeM and diminish fear expression in vivo. Therefore, astrocytes influence neural network activity and animal behavior through the regulation of specific synapses.

    • Mario Martin-Fernandez
    • , Stephanie Jamison
    • , Laurie M Robin
    • , Zhe Zhao
    • , Eduardo D Martin
    • , Juan Aguilar
    • , Michael A Benneyworth
    • , Giovanni Marsicano
    •  & Alfonso Araque
  • Article |

    The precise underpinnings of Parkinson's disease and other disorders associated with the accumulation of α-synuclein are unclear. This study shows that PrPC mediates α-synuclein-associated synaptic dysfunction and memory deficits. Blocking specific events in receptor biology rescued cognitive deficits in mice, suggesting new possibilities for intervention in synucleinopathies.

    • Diana G Ferreira
    • , Mariana Temido-Ferreira
    • , Hugo Vicente Miranda
    • , Vânia L Batalha
    • , Joana E Coelho
    • , Éva M Szegö
    • , Inês Marques-Morgado
    • , Sandra H Vaz
    • , Jeong Seop Rhee
    • , Matthias Schmitz
    • , Inga Zerr
    • , Luísa V Lopes
    •  & Tiago F Outeiro
  • Article |

    Spinal cord injury causes life-threatening infections. The authors report that this is partially mediated by a maladaptive neuroendocrine reflex extending from the spinal cord to the adrenal glands, where it blocks catecholamines while producing immunosuppressive corticosteroids. The effect depends on the spinal injury level, and normalization of hormones production by the adrenals rescues mice from pneumonia.

    • Harald Prüss
    • , Andrea Tedeschi
    • , Aude Thiriot
    • , Lydia Lynch
    • , Scott M Loughhead
    • , Susanne Stutte
    • , Irina B Mazo
    • , Marcel A Kopp
    • , Benedikt Brommer
    • , Christian Blex
    • , Laura-Christin Geurtz
    • , Thomas Liebscher
    • , Andreas Niedeggen
    • , Ulrich Dirnagl
    • , Frank Bradke
    • , Magdalena S Volz
    • , Michael J DeVivo
    • , Yuying Chen
    • , Ulrich H von Andrian
    •  & Jan M Schwab
  • Article |

    The authors identify the midcingulate cortex as a region that gates nociceptive plasticity without modulating basal nociception or the affective component of acute pain in mice. They identify a novel pathway from the midcingulate cortex to the posterior insula that recruits descending serotonergic projections to facilitate nociception.

    • Linette Liqi Tan
    • , Patric Pelzer
    • , Céline Heinl
    • , Wannan Tang
    • , Vijayan Gangadharan
    • , Herta Flor
    • , Rolf Sprengel
    • , Thomas Kuner
    •  & Rohini Kuner
  • Article |

    A small population of brainstem noradrenaline neurons powerfully modulates global brain function, but how they regulate diverse—and at times opposing—functions is not clear. The authors report that a modular organization in this neuromodulatory system, coupled with context-dependent activation modes, controls the balance between opposing emotional and flexible learning states.

    • Akira Uematsu
    • , Bao Zhen Tan
    • , Edgar A Ycu
    • , Jessica Sulkes Cuevas
    • , Jenny Koivumaa
    • , Felix Junyent
    • , Eric J Kremer
    • , Ilana B Witten
    • , Karl Deisseroth
    •  & Joshua P Johansen
  • Article |

    Esr1+ cells in the VMHvl are well known to influence female sexual behaviors. Here the authors find a surprising new role of this population in female aggression. They further reveal that the female VMHvl contains two molecularly and anatomically distinct subdivisions: one for aggression and one for sex.

    • Koichi Hashikawa
    • , Yoshiko Hashikawa
    • , Robin Tremblay
    • , Jiaxing Zhang
    • , James E Feng
    • , Alexander Sabol
    • , Walter T Piper
    • , Hyosang Lee
    • , Bernardo Rudy
    •  & Dayu Lin
  • Article |

    Dopamine has long been thought to contribute to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. The authors show that dopamine-induced neuron death in the substantia nigra is dependent on α-synuclein and coincides with increased levels of α-synuclein oligomers. The results suggest a synergistic interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein that underlies neuronal vulnerability in disease.

    • Danielle E Mor
    • , Elpida Tsika
    • , Joseph R Mazzulli
    • , Neal S Gould
    • , Hanna Kim
    • , Malcolm J Daniels
    • , Shachee Doshi
    • , Preetika Gupta
    • , Jennifer L Grossman
    • , Victor X Tan
    • , Robert G Kalb
    • , Kim A Caldwell
    • , Guy A Caldwell
    • , John H Wolfe
    •  & Harry Ischiropoulos
  • Article |

    Long-range enhancer interactions regulate gene expression, yet how they influence CNS development and disease remains unclear. Glasgow et al. identified glia-specific elements and 3D chromatin architectures regulating NFIA expression during development. They also found that deletion of these enhancers suppresses NFIA expression and tumorigenesis in an in vivo glioma model.

    • Stacey M Glasgow
    • , Jeffrey C Carlson
    • , Wenyi Zhu
    • , Lesley S Chaboub
    • , Peng Kang
    • , Hyun Kyoung Lee
    • , Yoanne M Clovis
    • , Brittney E Lozzi
    • , Robert J McEvilly
    • , Michael G Rosenfeld
    • , Chad J Creighton
    • , Soo-Kyung Lee
    • , Carrie A Mohila
    •  & Benjamin Deneen
  • Article |

    Girardeau et al. show that coordinated reactivations of functionally connected neurons between the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala occur during sharp wave–ripples of sleep following training on an aversive spatial task. These findings suggest a mechanism by which emotional memories are consolidated during sleep.

    • Gabrielle Girardeau
    • , Ingrid Inema
    •  & György Buzsáki
  • Article |

    Monkeys, like humans, normally have face domains in inferotemporal cortex; however, monkeys raised without exposure to faces do not develop face patches. Normally reared monkeys, like humans, preferentially look at faces, but face-deprived monkeys do not. These results highlight the importance of early experience for normal sensory and cognitive development.

    • Michael J Arcaro
    • , Peter F Schade
    • , Justin L Vincent
    • , Carlos R Ponce
    •  & Margaret S Livingstone
  • Article |

    Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in hippocampal area CA1 of Df(16)A+/− mice, an animal model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, the authors found a reduction in spatial map stability compared to that in wild-type mice, as well as an absence of goal-directed place cell reorganization during goal-oriented spatial learning.

    • Jeffrey D Zaremba
    • , Anastasia Diamantopoulou
    • , Nathan B Danielson
    • , Andres D Grosmark
    • , Patrick W Kaifosh
    • , John C Bowler
    • , Zhenrui Liao
    • , Fraser T Sparks
    • , Joseph A Gogos
    •  & Attila Losonczy
  • Resource |

    This paper reports the availability of a new Resource with RNA-seq, DNA methylation and H3K9Ac QTL results from 411 brain samples. Many xQTL SNPs influence multiple molecular features, and the authors observe epigenetic mediation of eQTLs in some cases. Reanalyzing GWAS with an xQTL-weighted approach detected 20 new CNS disease susceptibility loci.

    • Bernard Ng
    • , Charles C White
    • , Hans-Ulrich Klein
    • , Solveig K Sieberts
    • , Cristin McCabe
    • , Ellis Patrick
    • , Jishu Xu
    • , Lei Yu
    • , Chris Gaiteri
    • , David A Bennett
    • , Sara Mostafavi
    •  & Philip L De Jager