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  • Interacting geological processes can cause complex hazard cascades that threaten life and property. Past events are instructive, but physical understanding must be paired with effective communication to minimize the risks posed by these events.

  • Nutrient availability influences the susceptibility of marine primary producers to viral infection. For diatoms in iron-limited waters, reduced infection rates impact marine biogeochemical cycles by enhancing the flux of material to depth.

    • Alex J. Poulton
    News & Views
  • The loss of Arctic sea-ice enhances evaporation and fuels extreme European winter snowfall, according to an analysis of atmospheric water vapour isotope measurements.

    • Hannah Bailey
    • Alun Hubbard
    • Jeffrey M. Welker
  • Low viscosities may not preclude brittle magma fragmentation under certain conditions, according to field observations and experimental evidence that suggest the conditions for brittle fragmentation may be met in many explosive mafic eruptions.

    • Emma J. Liu
    News & Views
  • Pesticide pollution is a widespread issue. A global risk assessment of 92 active pesticide ingredients suggests 2.5 billion hectares of agricultural land are at risk of pollution by more than one active ingredient.

    • Rupert Lloyd Hough
    News & Views
  • Pesticide pollution is a risk for two-thirds of agriculture land. A third of high-risk areas are in high-biodiversity regions and a fifth are in low- and lower-middle-income areas, according to environmental modelling combined with pesticide application data.

    • Fiona H. M. Tang
    • Manfred Lenzen
    • Federico Maggi
  • In explosive basaltic eruptions, brittle fragmentation and subsequent healing by viscous melt are documented by textural analysis of products from ten disparate eruptions, suggesting that grain size may not reflect the initial fracture density of magma.

    • J. Taddeucci
    • C. Cimarelli
    • F. Di Stefano
  • In a Hawaiian fountain eruption, rapid gas expansion cools the melt below the glass transition temperature and causes brittle magma fragmentation, producing small, vesicular pyroclasts, according to observations of the 2018 eruption of Kīlauea.

    • Atsuko Namiki
    • Matthew R. Patrick
    • Bruce F. Houghton
  • Enceladus’s interior ocean could sustain a pole-to-equator overturning circulation, which might mean its bulk salinity is greater than that estimated from plume sampling by Cassini, according to numerical simulations.

    • Ana H. Lobo
    • Andrew F. Thompson
    • Saikiran Tharimena
  • Large-scale radiant heat flux increased in the years prior to eruptions at five volcanoes, probably due to enhanced underground hydrothermal activity, according to an analysis of satellite infrared data.

    • Társilo Girona
    • Vincent Realmuto
    • Paul Lundgren
  • Warm and wet conditions could have episodically punctuated a generally cold early climate on Mars, according to a multidisciplinary modelling approach that potentially solves a five-decade long debate regarding warm conditions on early Mars.

    • Nicolas Mangold
    News & Views