Browse Articles

  • Article |

    Brines from evaporation of a lake in Gale crater on Mars are inferred from bulk enrichments of Ca- and Mg-sulfates in Hesperian sedimentary rocks, identified by geochemical analyses and observations by NASA’s rover Curiosity.

    • W. Rapin
    • , B. L. Ehlmann
    • , G. Dromart
    • , J. Schieber
    • , N. H. Thomas
    • , W. W. Fischer
    • , V. K. Fox
    • , N. T. Stein
    • , M. Nachon
    • , B. C. Clark
    • , L. C. Kah
    • , L. Thompson
    • , H. A. Meyer
    • , T. S. J. Gabriel
    • , C. Hardgrove
    • , N. Mangold
    • , F. Rivera-Hernandez
    • , R. C. Wiens
    •  & A. R. Vasavada
  • Article |

    Hot and dry climate extremes in Australia are linked to stratospheric polar vortex weakening, with potential implications for their predictability, according to statistical analyses of observational data from the past 40 years.

    • Eun-Pa Lim
    • , Harry H. Hendon
    • , Ghyslaine Boschat
    • , Debra Hudson
    • , David W. J. Thompson
    • , Andrew J. Dowdy
    •  & Julie M. Arblaster
  • News & Views |

    Wet rice cultivation in the Palu Valley, Indonesia, prepared the ground for the devastating liquefaction-induced landslides that were triggered by the Mw 7.5 earthquake in 2018, suggest two studies of the spatial relationship between landslide morphology and irrigation.

    • Phil R. Cummins
  • Article |

    Domes on the dwarf planet Ceres could form by solid-state flow of low-density, ice-rich parts of its crust—a process analogous to salt doming on Earth—according to numerical simulations.

    • M. T. Bland
    • , D. L. Buczkowski
    • , H. G. Sizemore
    • , A. I. Ermakov
    • , S. D. King
    • , M. M. Sori
    • , C. A. Raymond
    • , J. C. Castillo-Rogez
    •  & C. T. Russell
  • News & Views |

    The large domes found on the dwarf planet Ceres may not result from cryovolcanism, but from solid-state flow analogous to salt doming on Earth, according to numerical simulations of gravitational loading.

    • Michael Küppers
  • Article |

    Aqueduct-supported cultivation of rice resulted in liquefaction of the alluvial soils that led to the landslides triggered by the Palu 2018 earthquake, according to satellite analyses.

    • Kyle Bradley
    • , Rishav Mallick
    • , Harisma Andikagumi
    • , Judith Hubbard
    • , Ella Meilianda
    • , Adam Switzer
    • , Nairong Du
    • , Gilles Brocard
    • , Dedy Alfian
    • , Benazir Benazir
    • , Guangcai Feng
    • , Sang-Ho Yun
    • , Jedrzej Majewski
    • , Shengji Wei
    •  & Emma M. Hill
  • Editorial |

    The geological similarities between icy and rocky worlds invite comparison and cross-fertilization of knowledge.

  • Article |

    The post-spinel transition in mantle composition, which occurs at 660-km depth in Earth’s mantle, takes place over a pressure range equivalent to 250 m in depth, according to multi-anvil experiments for realistic mantle compositions and temperatures.

    • Takayuki Ishii
    • , Rong Huang
    • , Robert Myhill
    • , Hongzhan Fei
    • , Iuliia Koemets
    • , Zhaodong Liu
    • , Fumiya Maeda
    • , Liang Yuan
    • , Lin Wang
    • , Dmitry Druzhbin
    • , Takafumi Yamamoto
    • , Shrikant Bhat
    • , Robert Farla
    • , Takaaki Kawazoe
    • , Noriyoshi Tsujino
    • , Eleonora Kulik
    • , Yuji Higo
    • , Yoshinori Tange
    •  & Tomoo Katsura
  • Article |

    Steady-state chemical differentiation between Earth’s mantle and crust was reached 3.5 billion years ago, following vigorous crustal recycling, according to mass balance modelling of molybdenum isotopes measured in mantle-derived volcanic rocks.

    • Alex J. McCoy-West
    • , Priyadarshi Chowdhury
    • , Kevin W. Burton
    • , Paolo Sossi
    • , Geoff M. Nowell
    • , J. Godfrey Fitton
    • , Andrew C. Kerr
    • , Peter A. Cawood
    •  & Helen M. Williams
  • News & Views |

    The structure of the lithosphere is key to reconciling the dynamic topography predicted by mantle convection models with residual topography derived from observations, suggest analyses of both models and data.

    • Nicolas Flament
  • Article |

    Seismicity induced by wastewater injections is widespread in Oklahoma, probably because its basement is susceptible to the reactivation of basement-rooted faults, according to three-dimensional seismic analyses, rock-mechanics experiments and field surveys.

    • F. Kolawole
    • , C. S. Johnston
    • , C. B. Morgan
    • , J. C. Chang
    • , K. J. Marfurt
    • , D. A. Lockner
    • , Z. Reches
    •  & B. M. Carpenter
  • Article |

    The Havre Tough back-arc basin, New Zealand, formed rapidly and in two phases: initial, limited seafloor spreading was followed by a transition to arc magmatism, as shown by geophysical data and modelling.

    • Fabio Caratori Tontini
    • , Dan Bassett
    • , Cornel E. J. de Ronde
    • , Christian Timm
    •  & Richard Wysoczanski
  • Article |

    The structure of the lithosphere and its impact on mantle flow significantly influence the impact of Earth’s interior dynamics on surface topography, suggest statistical analyses of Earth’s topography.

    • D. R. Davies
    • , A. P. Valentine
    • , S. C. Kramer
    • , N. Rawlinson
    • , M. J. Hoggard
    • , C. M. Eakin
    •  & C. R. Wilson
  • Article |

    Depleted mantle is a volumetrically dominant component of the Azores plume and possibly of oceanic basalt sources more generally, according to neodymium isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from lavas of the Azores mantle plume.

    • Andreas Stracke
    • , Felix Genske
    • , Jasper Berndt
    •  & Janne M. Koornneef
  • Article |

    Glaciers in the Andes have lost about 23 Gt of mass per year between 2000 and 2018, with the fastest loss in Patagonia, according to time series of digital elevation models that are based on ASTER stereo images.

    • I. Dussaillant
    • , E. Berthier
    • , F. Brun
    • , M. Masiokas
    • , R. Hugonnet
    • , V. Favier
    • , A. Rabatel
    • , P. Pitte
    •  & L. Ruiz
  • Article |

    Some lake basins in the polar regions of Titan may be craters from nitrogen vapour explosions due to past warming, according to analysis of their morphology in comparison to terrestrial explosion craters from magma–water interaction.

    • Giuseppe Mitri
    • , Jonathan I. Lunine
    • , Marco Mastrogiuseppe
    •  & Valerio Poggiali
  • Article |

    The northern temperate carbon sink is estimated to increase by 0.64 PgC each year for each increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 100 ppm, suggests an analysis of data from field experiments at 7 sites constraints.

    • Yongwen Liu
    • , Shilong Piao
    • , Thomas Gasser
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Hui Yang
    • , Han Wang
    • , Trevor F. Keenan
    • , Mengtian Huang
    • , Shiqiang Wan
    • , Jian Song
    • , Kai Wang
    • , Ivan A. Janssens
    • , Josep Peñuelas
    • , Chris Huntingford
    • , Xuhui Wang
    • , Muhammad Altaf Arain
    • , Yuanyuan Fang
    • , Joshua B. Fisher
    • , Maoyi Huang
    • , Deborah N. Huntzinger
    • , Akihiko Ito
    • , Atul K. Jain
    • , Jiafu Mao
    • , Anna M. Michalak
    • , Changhui Peng
    • , Benjamin Poulter
    • , Christopher Schwalm
    • , Xiaoying Shi
    • , Hanqin Tian
    • , Yaxing Wei
    • , Ning Zeng
    • , Qiuan Zhu
    •  & Tao Wang
  • Editorial |

    Scrutiny from every angle, by a diverse set of reviewers, improves the peer review process and the papers that we publish.

  • Perspective |

    Coastal vegetated ecosystems have experienced rapid changes in climate and environmental conditions. These changes have caused disturbances to the amount of carbon they store in soils by altering the decomposition process of organic carbon.

    • Amanda C. Spivak
    • , Jonathan Sanderman
    • , Jennifer L. Bowen
    • , Elizabeth A. Canuel
    •  & Charles S. Hopkinson
  • Article |

    Inclusion of sponge spicules and radiolarians increases the global ocean biological sink of silicon by 28%, with 95% of that increase attributed to sponges, according to examination of sediments from 17 marine cores.

    • Manuel Maldonado
    • , María López-Acosta
    • , Cèlia Sitjà
    • , Marta García-Puig
    • , Cristina Galobart
    • , Gemma Ercilla
    •  & Aude Leynaert
  • News & Views |

    Subduction processes may have operated very early in Earth’s history according to the heavy silicon isotope compositions of Archaean igneous rocks. The silicon that precipitated out of the Archaean oceans as chert was subducted and melted to yield seawater-like heavy isotope signatures in early granitic rocks.

    • Franck Poitrasson
  • News & Views |

    The distribution of iron-loving elements between the mantles of the Moon and Earth may differ from established belief, suggest two studies that determine the hafnium–tungsten ratio and sulfide–silicate melt partitioning of elements in the lunar mantle.

    • Philipp Gleißner
  • Article |

    The European mega-heatwaves in 2003 and 2010 were intensified by torrents of hot air that were transported in from desiccated regions upwind, suggests an analysis of observations and reanalysis data together with a Lagrangian heat-tracking framework.

    • Dominik L. Schumacher
    • , Jessica Keune
    • , Chiel C. van Heerwaarden
    • , Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
    • , Adriaan J. Teuling
    •  & Diego G. Miralles
  • Article |

    Phosphorus limitation can significantly reduce the response of the Amazon forest to CO2 fertilization, according to ecosystem-model ensemble simulations of a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment.

    • Katrin Fleischer
    • , Anja Rammig
    • , Martin G. De Kauwe
    • , Anthony P. Walker
    • , Tomas F. Domingues
    • , Lucia Fuchslueger
    • , Sabrina Garcia
    • , Daniel S. Goll
    • , Adriana Grandis
    • , Mingkai Jiang
    • , Vanessa Haverd
    • , Florian Hofhansl
    • , Jennifer A. Holm
    • , Bart Kruijt
    • , Felix Leung
    • , Belinda E. Medlyn
    • , Lina M. Mercado
    • , Richard J. Norby
    • , Bernard Pak
    • , Celso von Randow
    • , Carlos A. Quesada
    • , Karst J. Schaap
    • , Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes
    • , Ying-Ping Wang
    • , Xiaojuan Yang
    • , Sönke Zaehle
    • , Qing Zhu
    •  & David M. Lapola
  • Article |

    Pyrogenic carbon produced from vegetation fires could be a globally important carbon sink, which amounts to 12% of the carbon emitted from wildfires annually, according to a global fire emission database that incorporates the estimate of pyrogenic carbon.

    • Matthew W. Jones
    • , Cristina Santín
    • , Guido R. van der Werf
    •  & Stefan H. Doerr
  • Article |

    Macroalgae can be transported across the open ocean, and substantial amounts can reach the seafloor at 4,000 m depth, according to analyses of metagenome data from global expeditions. Macroalgae are a potentially important oceanic carbon sink globally.

    • Alejandra Ortega
    • , Nathan R. Geraldi
    • , Intikhab Alam
    • , Allan A. Kamau
    • , Silvia G. Acinas
    • , Ramiro Logares
    • , Josep M. Gasol
    • , Ramon Massana
    • , Dorte Krause-Jensen
    •  & Carlos M. Duarte
  • Article |

    Dissolved organic matter is persistent in soil owing to continuous consumption and transformation rather than owing to its recalcitrant molecular properties, according to analyses of molecular changes of dissolved organic matter as it passes through soil.

    • Vanessa-Nina Roth
    • , Markus Lange
    • , Carsten Simon
    • , Norbert Hertkorn
    • , Sebastian Bucher
    • , Timothy Goodall
    • , Robert I. Griffiths
    • , Perla G. Mellado-Vázquez
    • , Liesje Mommer
    • , Natalie J. Oram
    • , Alexandra Weigelt
    • , Thorsten Dittmar
    •  & Gerd Gleixner
  • Comment |

    The climate of South and East Asia is affected by anthropogenic aerosols, but the magnitude of the aerosol imprint is not well known. As regional emissions are rapidly changing, potential related climate risks must be quantified.

    • Bjørn H. Samset
    • , Marianne T. Lund
    • , Massimo Bollasina
    • , Gunnar Myhre
    •  & Laura Wilcox
  • Perspective |

    Recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer above Antarctica has not been straightforward, as a result of human activities and climate change. The recovery process might be delayed by up to decades if further mitigation actions are not taken.

    • Xuekun Fang
    • , John A. Pyle
    • , Martyn P. Chipperfield
    • , John S. Daniel
    • , Sunyoung Park
    •  & Ronald G. Prinn
  • Article |

    The Moon formed around 50 Myr after the Solar System, suggests a lunar silicate Hf/W ratio higher than that of Earth, from high-precision compositional analysis of lunar rock samples.

    • Maxwell M. Thiemens
    • , Peter Sprung
    • , Raúl O. C. Fonseca
    • , Felipe P. Leitzke
    •  & Carsten Münker