Browse Articles

  • Article |

    Mars’s mantle is chemically heterogeneous and contains multiple primordial water reservoirs, according to an analysis of the hydrogen isotopic composition of minerals in Martian meteorites.

    • Jessica J. Barnes
    • , Francis M. McCubbin
    • , Alison R. Santos
    • , James M. D. Day
    • , Jeremy W. Boyce
    • , Susanne P. Schwenzer
    • , Ulrich Ott
    • , Ian A. Franchi
    • , Scott Messenger
    • , Mahesh Anand
    •  & Carl B. Agee
  • Article |

    Tsunami generation by megathrust earthquakes is enhanced by extensional faulting in the upper plate when the subducting slab shallows, according to numerical modelling and observations from the Sumatra–Andaman and Tohoku earthquake–tsunami events.

    • Bar Oryan
    •  & W. Roger Buck
  • Article |

    The oceans probably remained well-oxygenated for millions of years after the Palaeoproterozoic Lomagundi–Jatuli Event, according to high concentrations and isotope signatures of redox-sensitive metals in the 2-billion-year-old Zaonega Formation, Russia.

    • Kaarel Mänd
    • , Stefan V. Lalonde
    • , Leslie J. Robbins
    • , Marie Thoby
    • , Kärt Paiste
    • , Timmu Kreitsmann
    • , Päärn Paiste
    • , Christopher T. Reinhard
    • , Alexandr E. Romashkin
    • , Noah J. Planavsky
    • , Kalle Kirsimäe
    • , Aivo Lepland
    •  & Kurt O. Konhauser
  • Article |

    Antarctic sea-ice loss causes enhanced warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific, and together with Arctic sea-ice loss accounts for 20–30% of projected warming and rainfall changes in the tropics, suggest climate model simulations.

    • Mark R. England
    • , Lorenzo M. Polvani
    • , Lantao Sun
    •  & Clara Deser
  • Article |

    High-precision measurements suggest that the Earth and Moon have distinct oxygen isotope compositions. This implies distinct oxygen isotopic compositions of the proto-Earth and its impactor that were not fully homogenized by the Moon-forming impact.

    • Erick J. Cano
    • , Zachary D. Sharp
    •  & Charles K. Shearer
  • Editorial |

    The first marsquakes detected by NASA’s InSight mission mark just the start of seismology on Mars. Both Earth and planetary scientists alike should embrace this new frontier of geophysics.

  • Article |

    Early Neoproterozoic marine productivity fell due to nutrient drawdown following a switch from an iron-rich to a sulfide-rich ocean, according to records of phosphorus geochemistry measured from sedimentary sections in North China.

    • Romain Guilbaud
    • , Simon W. Poulton
    • , Jennifer Thompson
    • , Kathryn F. Husband
    • , Maoyan Zhu
    • , Ying Zhou
    • , Graham A. Shields
    •  & Timothy M. Lenton
  • Article |

    Low-angle normal faults in the Banda Sea have caused large earthquakes that indirectly generated tsunamis due to earthquake-triggered submarine slumping, according to an analysis of historical earthquake and tsunami events and GPS observations.

    • Phil R. Cummins
    • , Ignatius R. Pranantyo
    • , Jonathan M. Pownall
    • , Jonathan D. Griffin
    • , Irwan Meilano
    •  & Siyuan Zhao
  • Article |

    The magnetic field measured by the InSight lander on Mars varies daily and is ten times stronger than expected. The field is inferred to originate from components of basement rocks magnetized by an ancient dynamo of Earth-like strength.

    • Catherine L. Johnson
    • , Anna Mittelholz
    • , Benoit Langlais
    • , Christopher T. Russell
    • , Véronique Ansan
    • , Don Banfield
    • , Peter J. Chi
    • , Matthew O. Fillingim
    • , Francois Forget
    • , Heidi Fuqua Haviland
    • , Matthew Golombek
    • , Steve Joy
    • , Philippe Lognonné
    • , Xinping Liu
    • , Chloé Michaut
    • , Lu Pan
    • , Cathy Quantin-Nataf
    • , Aymeric Spiga
    • , Sabine Stanley
    • , Shea N. Thorne
    • , Mark A. Wieczorek
    • , Yanan Yu
    • , Suzanne E. Smrekar
    •  & William B. Banerdt
  • Perspective |

    Geophysical and meteorological measurements by NASA’s InSight lander on Mars reveal a planet that is seismically active and provide information about the interior, surface and atmospheric workings of Mars.

    • W. Bruce Banerdt
    • , Suzanne E. Smrekar
    • , Don Banfield
    • , Domenico Giardini
    • , Matthew Golombek
    • , Catherine L. Johnson
    • , Philippe Lognonné
    • , Aymeric Spiga
    • , Tilman Spohn
    • , Clément Perrin
    • , Simon C. Stähler
    • , Daniele Antonangeli
    • , Sami Asmar
    • , Caroline Beghein
    • , Neil Bowles
    • , Ebru Bozdag
    • , Peter Chi
    • , Ulrich Christensen
    • , John Clinton
    • , Gareth S. Collins
    • , Ingrid Daubar
    • , Véronique Dehant
    • , Mélanie Drilleau
    • , Matthew Fillingim
    • , William Folkner
    • , Raphaël F. Garcia
    • , Jim Garvin
    • , John Grant
    • , Matthias Grott
    • , Jerzy Grygorczuk
    • , Troy Hudson
    • , Jessica C. E. Irving
    • , Günter Kargl
    • , Taichi Kawamura
    • , Sharon Kedar
    • , Scott King
    • , Brigitte Knapmeyer-Endrun
    • , Martin Knapmeyer
    • , Mark Lemmon
    • , Ralph Lorenz
    • , Justin N. Maki
    • , Ludovic Margerin
    • , Scott M. McLennan
    • , Chloe Michaut
    • , David Mimoun
    • , Anna Mittelholz
    • , Antoine Mocquet
    • , Paul Morgan
    • , Nils T. Mueller
    • , Naomi Murdoch
    • , Seiichi Nagihara
    • , Claire Newman
    • , Francis Nimmo
    • , Mark Panning
    • , W. Thomas Pike
    • , Ana-Catalina Plesa
    • , Sébastien Rodriguez
    • , Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Manfredi
    • , Christopher T. Russell
    • , Nicholas Schmerr
    • , Matt Siegler
    • , Sabine Stanley
    • , Eléanore Stutzmann
    • , Nicholas Teanby
    • , Jeroen Tromp
    • , Martin van Driel
    • , Nicholas Warner
    • , Renee Weber
    •  & Mark Wieczorek
  • Comment |

    The InSight mission on Mars is currently providing us with the first seismic data from a planetary body other than our own Earth since the 1970s. Past efforts will inform this next chapter in planetary seismology.

    • Yosio Nakamura
  • Article |

    Mars is seismically active: 24 subcrustal magnitude 3–4 marsquakes and 150 smaller events have been identified up to 30 September 2019, by an analysis of seismometer data from the InSight lander.

    • D. Giardini
    • , P. Lognonné
    • , W. B. Banerdt
    • , W. T. Pike
    • , U. Christensen
    • , S. Ceylan
    • , J. F. Clinton
    • , M. van Driel
    • , S. C. Stähler
    • , M. Böse
    • , R. F. Garcia
    • , A. Khan
    • , M. Panning
    • , C. Perrin
    • , D. Banfield
    • , E. Beucler
    • , C. Charalambous
    • , F. Euchner
    • , A. Horleston
    • , A. Jacob
    • , T. Kawamura
    • , S. Kedar
    • , G. Mainsant
    • , J.-R. Scholz
    • , S. E. Smrekar
    • , A. Spiga
    • , C. Agard
    • , D. Antonangeli
    • , S. Barkaoui
    • , E. Barrett
    • , P. Combes
    • , V. Conejero
    • , I. Daubar
    • , M. Drilleau
    • , C. Ferrier
    • , T. Gabsi
    • , T. Gudkova
    • , K. Hurst
    • , F. Karakostas
    • , S. King
    • , M. Knapmeyer
    • , B. Knapmeyer-Endrun
    • , R. Llorca-Cejudo
    • , A. Lucas
    • , L. Luno
    • , L. Margerin
    • , J. B. McClean
    • , D. Mimoun
    • , N. Murdoch
    • , F. Nimmo
    • , M. Nonon
    • , C. Pardo
    • , A. Rivoldini
    • , J. A. Rodriguez Manfredi
    • , H. Samuel
    • , M. Schimmel
    • , A. E. Stott
    • , E. Stutzmann
    • , N. Teanby
    • , T. Warren
    • , R. C. Weber
    • , M. Wieczorek
    •  & C. Yana
  • News & Views |

    Mars’s newest seismometer needed to separate marsquakes from meteorology. Continuous weather observations to keep it honest are revealing new facets of Mars’s churning atmosphere.

    • Nicholas Heavens
  • Article |

    The crust beneath the InSight lander on Mars is altered or fractured to 8–11 km depth and may bear volatiles, according to an analysis of seismic noise and wave scattering recorded by InSight’s seismometer.

    • P. Lognonné
    • , W. B. Banerdt
    • , W. T. Pike
    • , D. Giardini
    • , U. Christensen
    • , R. F. Garcia
    • , T. Kawamura
    • , S. Kedar
    • , B. Knapmeyer-Endrun
    • , L. Margerin
    • , F. Nimmo
    • , M. Panning
    • , B. Tauzin
    • , J.-R. Scholz
    • , D. Antonangeli
    • , S. Barkaoui
    • , E. Beucler
    • , F. Bissig
    • , N. Brinkman
    • , M. Calvet
    • , S. Ceylan
    • , C. Charalambous
    • , P. Davis
    • , M. van Driel
    • , M. Drilleau
    • , L. Fayon
    • , R. Joshi
    • , B. Kenda
    • , A. Khan
    • , M. Knapmeyer
    • , V. Lekic
    • , J. McClean
    • , D. Mimoun
    • , N. Murdoch
    • , L. Pan
    • , C. Perrin
    • , B. Pinot
    • , L. Pou
    • , S. Menina
    • , S. Rodriguez
    • , C. Schmelzbach
    • , N. Schmerr
    • , D. Sollberger
    • , A. Spiga
    • , S. Stähler
    • , A. Stott
    • , E. Stutzmann
    • , S. Tharimena
    • , R. Widmer-Schnidrig
    • , F. Andersson
    • , V. Ansan
    • , C. Beghein
    • , M. Böse
    • , E. Bozdag
    • , J. Clinton
    • , I. Daubar
    • , P. Delage
    • , N. Fuji
    • , M. Golombek
    • , M. Grott
    • , A. Horleston
    • , K. Hurst
    • , J. Irving
    • , A. Jacob
    • , J. Knollenberg
    • , S. Krasner
    • , C. Krause
    • , R. Lorenz
    • , C. Michaut
    • , R. Myhill
    • , T. Nissen-Meyer
    • , J. ten Pierick
    • , A.-C. Plesa
    • , C. Quantin-Nataf
    • , J. Robertsson
    • , L. Rochas
    • , M. Schimmel
    • , S. Smrekar
    • , T. Spohn
    • , N. Teanby
    • , J. Tromp
    • , J. Vallade
    • , N. Verdier
    • , C. Vrettos
    • , R. Weber
    • , D. Banfield
    • , E. Barrett
    • , M. Bierwirth
    • , S. Calcutt
    • , N. Compaire
    • , C.L. Johnson
    • , D. Mance
    • , F. Euchner
    • , L. Kerjean
    • , G. Mainsant
    • , A. Mocquet
    • , J. A Rodriguez Manfredi
    • , G. Pont
    • , P. Laudet
    • , T. Nebut
    • , S. de Raucourt
    • , O. Robert
    • , C. T. Russell
    • , A. Sylvestre-Baron
    • , S. Tillier
    • , T. Warren
    • , M. Wieczorek
    • , C. Yana
    •  & P. Zweifel
  • Article |

    The InSight lander has expanded our knowledge of the atmosphere of Mars by observing various phenomena, including airglow, bores, infrasound and Earth-like turbulence.

    • Don Banfield
    • , Aymeric Spiga
    • , Claire Newman
    • , François Forget
    • , Mark Lemmon
    • , Ralph Lorenz
    • , Naomi Murdoch
    • , Daniel Viudez-Moreiras
    • , Jorge Pla-Garcia
    • , Raphaël F. Garcia
    • , Philippe Lognonné
    • , Özgür Karatekin
    • , Clément Perrin
    • , Léo Martire
    • , Nicholas Teanby
    • , Bart Van Hove
    • , Justin N. Maki
    • , Balthasar Kenda
    • , Nils T. Mueller
    • , Sébastien Rodriguez
    • , Taichi Kawamura
    • , John B. McClean
    • , Alexander E. Stott
    • , Constantinos Charalambous
    • , Ehouarn Millour
    • , Catherine L. Johnson
    • , Anna Mittelholz
    • , Anni Määttänen
    • , Stephen R. Lewis
    • , John Clinton
    • , Simon C. Stähler
    • , Savas Ceylan
    • , Domenico Giardini
    • , Tristram Warren
    • , William T. Pike
    • , Ingrid Daubar
    • , Matthew Golombek
    • , Lucie Rolland
    • , Rudolf Widmer-Schnidrig
    • , David Mimoun
    • , Éric Beucler
    • , Alice Jacob
    • , Antoine Lucas
    • , Mariah Baker
    • , Véronique Ansan
    • , Kenneth Hurst
    • , Luis Mora-Sotomayor
    • , Sara Navarro
    • , Josefina Torres
    • , Alain Lepinette
    • , Antonio Molina
    • , Mercedes Marin-Jimenez
    • , Javier Gomez-Elvira
    • , Veronica Peinado
    • , Jose-Antonio Rodriguez-Manfredi
    • , Brian T. Carcich
    • , Stephen Sackett
    • , Christopher T. Russell
    • , Tilman Spohn
    • , Suzanne E. Smrekar
    •  & W. Bruce Banerdt
  • Article |

    Spatial patterns in the phosphorus and nitrogen limitation in natural terrestrial ecosystems are reported from analysis of a global database of the resorption efficiency of nutrients by leaves.

    • Enzai Du
    • , César Terrer
    • , Adam F. A. Pellegrini
    • , Anders Ahlström
    • , Caspar J. van Lissa
    • , Xia Zhao
    • , Nan Xia
    • , Xinhui Wu
    •  & Robert B. Jackson
  • Article |

    Thioarsenates are found in the pore waters of rice paddy fields, comparable in concentration to methylated oxyarsenates, according to field, mesocosm and soil incubation studies.

    • Jiajia Wang
    • , Carolin F. Kerl
    • , Pengjie Hu
    • , Maria Martin
    • , Tingting Mu
    • , Lena Brüggenwirth
    • , Guangmei Wu
    • , Daniel Said-Pullicino
    • , Marco Romani
    • , Longhua Wu
    •  & Britta Planer-Friedrich
  • Editorial |

    Mineral extraction will play an important role in climate change mitigation and green technologies. But ensuring that the net effect of mining is beneficial requires careful monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts.

  • Article |

    Bubble-mediated flux of oxygen into the Labrador Sea surface ocean contributes to air–sea gas exchange, suggest observations from moored profiling and Argo float data. Climate models that omit the process may underestimate oxygen in the deep ocean.

    • D. Atamanchuk
    • , J. Koelling
    • , U. Send
    •  & D. W. R. Wallace
  • Article |

    Analyses of inventory models under two climate change projection scenarios suggest that carbon emissions from abrupt thaw of permafrost through ground collapse, erosion and landslides could contribute significantly to the overall permafrost carbon balance.

    • Merritt R. Turetsky
    • , Benjamin W. Abbott
    • , Miriam C. Jones
    • , Katey Walter Anthony
    • , David Olefeldt
    • , Edward A. G. Schuur
    • , Guido Grosse
    • , Peter Kuhry
    • , Gustaf Hugelius
    • , Charles Koven
    • , David M. Lawrence
    • , Carolyn Gibson
    • , A. Britta K. Sannel
    •  & A. David McGuire
  • Article |

    Ocean heat transport underneath the floating tongue of 79 North Glacier, Greenland, is controlled by a sill in the inflow channel, according to ship-based and mooring data as well as bathymetric data.

    • Janin Schaffer
    • , Torsten Kanzow
    • , Wilken-Jon von Appen
    • , Luisa von Albedyll
    • , Jan Erik Arndt
    •  & David H. Roberts
  • Article |

    Thinning rates of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica’s largest glacier, are now highest in slowly flowing regions, suggesting that future changes in the grounding line may be more modest than thought, according to high-resolution satellite data.

    • Jonathan L. Bamber
    •  & Geoffrey J. Dawson
  • News & Views |

    The biomass of some of the smallest ocean organisms may be stable or even increase in a warming world, suggests a data analysis based on machine-learning techniques.

    • Daniele Iudicone
  • Article |

    In relatively cold subducted slabs, olivine may transform to finer-grained, weaker ringwoodite than in warm slabs, according to deformation experiments under conditions analogous to those in the mantle transition zone and scaling analysis.

    • Anwar Mohiuddin
    • , Shun-ichiro Karato
    •  & Jennifer Girard
  • Article |

    Dunes in the world’s big rivers are dominated by lee-side slopes with angles of less than 10°, according to a bedform analysis of high-resolution bathymetric datasets.

    • Julia Cisneros
    • , Jim Best
    • , Thaiënne van Dijk
    • , Renato Paes de Almeida
    • , Mario Amsler
    • , Justin Boldt
    • , Bernardo Freitas
    • , Cristiano Galeazzi
    • , Richard Huizinga
    • , Marco Ianniruberto
    • , Hongbo Ma
    • , Jeffrey A. Nittrouer
    • , Kevin Oberg
    • , Oscar Orfeo
    • , Dan Parsons
    • , Ricardo Szupiany
    • , Ping Wang
    •  & Yuanfeng Zhang
  • Article |

    The chemical diversity of Earth’s early continental building blocks can be explained by differentiation of a single melt, without complex geodynamic settings, according to petrological and geochemical analysis of samples from South Africa.

    • Oscar Laurent
    • , Jana Björnsen
    • , Jörn-Frederik Wotzlaw
    • , Simone Bretscher
    • , Manuel Pimenta Silva
    • , Jean-François Moyen
    • , Peter Ulmer
    •  & Olivier Bachmann
  • Article |

    Compensation of the effects of salt and temperature changes on water density in the Labrador Sea can explain the minimal response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to convection, according to analyses of observations and reanalysis data.

    • Sijia Zou
    • , M. Susan Lozier
    • , Feili Li
    • , Ryan Abernathey
    •  & Laura Jackson
  • Article |

    Methane release rate from Arctic Ocean sediments in winter is significantly lower than in summer, according to surveys of cold-seep activity along the shelf break offshore Svalbard.

    • Bénédicte Ferré
    • , Pär G. Jansson
    • , Manuel Moser
    • , Pavel Serov
    • , Alexey Portnov
    • , Carolyn A. Graves
    • , Giuliana Panieri
    • , Friederike Gründger
    • , Christian Berndt
    • , Moritz F. Lehmann
    •  & Helge Niemann
  • Article |

    Rapid oceanic and atmospheric circulation shifts led to a transient peak in the mean temperature of the ocean at the start of the Last Interglacial, according to noble gas isotope records from an Antarctic ice core.

    • S. Shackleton
    • , D. Baggenstos
    • , J. A. Menking
    • , M. N. Dyonisius
    • , B. Bereiter
    • , T. K. Bauska
    • , R. H. Rhodes
    • , E. J. Brook
    • , V. V. Petrenko
    • , J. R. McConnell
    • , T. Kellerhals
    • , M. Häberli
    • , J. Schmitt
    • , H. Fischer
    •  & J. P. Severinghaus
  • Perspective |

    Glaciers in the Karakoram region, with their balanced or slightly positive mass balance, stand out from global glacier shrinkage, but this anomaly is not expected to persist in the long term, according to an overview of the possible explanations.

    • Daniel Farinotti
    • , Walter W. Immerzeel
    • , Remco J. de Kok
    • , Duncan J. Quincey
    •  & Amaury Dehecq
  • Article |

    Subsurface iron-oxidizing bacteria are sustained by intermittent oxygen delivery through rock fracture networks, according to biological and geochemical analyses of borehole fluids combined with a fluid mixing model.

    • Olivier Bochet
    • , Lorine Bethencourt
    • , Alexis Dufresne
    • , Julien Farasin
    • , Mathieu Pédrot
    • , Thierry Labasque
    • , Eliot Chatton
    • , Nicolas Lavenant
    • , Christophe Petton
    • , Benjamin W. Abbott
    • , Luc Aquilina
    •  & Tanguy Le Borgne
  • News & Views |

    Strengthening and poleward movement of the Southern Westerlies, and increased melting of the Antarctic ice sheet play a primary role in changes observed in the Southern Ocean over the past few decades, according to measurements and modelling.

    • Alessandro Silvano
  • News & Views |

    Differential cycling of carbonate and organic carbon in the mantle may link the Great Oxidation Event and the subsequent increase in carbon isotope values, according to a model that links the Earth’s surface and interior.

    • Jeremy K. Caves Rugenstein
  • Article |

    Physical and biogeochemical changes in the Southern Ocean over the past decade are largely due to growing meltwater input and intensifying poleward winds, according to observations from ships and floats and model simulations.

    • Ben Bronselaer
    • , Joellen L. Russell
    • , Michael Winton
    • , Nancy L. Williams
    • , Robert M. Key
    • , John P. Dunne
    • , Richard A. Feely
    • , Kenneth S. Johnson
    •  & Jorge L. Sarmiento
  • Article |

    Recent seismicity near Mayotte in the Indian Ocean is due to dyke propagation from and drainage of a 25–35 km deep magma reservoir, according to an analysis of earthquake and deformation data.

    • Simone Cesca
    • , Jean Letort
    • , Hoby N. T. Razafindrakoto
    • , Sebastian Heimann
    • , Eleonora Rivalta
    • , Marius P. Isken
    • , Mehdi Nikkhoo
    • , Luigi Passarelli
    • , Gesa M. Petersen
    • , Fabrice Cotton
    •  & Torsten Dahm
  • Article |

    A discrete block of thick ancient crust revealed by a crustal reconstruction suggests a complex geologic history for the southern highlands of Mars.

    • Sylvain Bouley
    • , James Tuttle Keane
    • , David Baratoux
    • , Benoit Langlais
    • , Isamu Matsuyama
    • , Francois Costard
    • , Roger Hewins
    • , Valerie Payré
    • , Violaine Sautter
    • , Antoine Séjourné
    • , Olivier Vanderhaeghe
    •  & Brigitte Zanda