Browse Articles

  • Article |

    Impacts could have driven transient subduction events on the Hadean Earth, according to numerical simulations. The scenario reconciles evidence for tectonic activity with that for an otherwise tectonically stagnant early Earth.

    • C. O’Neill
    • , S. Marchi
    • , S. Zhang
    •  & W. Bottke
  • Article |

    Unloading of the lithosphere due to reduced sea level in the Mediterranean 6 million years ago may have triggered magmatism around the region, according to numerical models. The eruptions cannot be easily explained by tectonic processes.

    • Pietro Sternai
    • , Luca Caricchi
    • , Daniel Garcia-Castellanos
    • , Laurent Jolivet
    • , Tom E. Sheldrake
    •  & Sébastien Castelltort
  • Article |

    Microbes on glacial snow and ice reduce albedo and increase melting. Field experiments show that nutrient and meltwater additions increase microbial abundance and that areas of microbe-covered snow generate increased snowmelt.

    • Gerard Q. Ganey
    • , Michael G. Loso
    • , Annie Bryant Burgess
    •  & Roman J. Dial
  • Article |

    If CO2 emissions after 2015 do not exceed 200 GtC, climate warming after 2015 will fall below 0.6 °C in 66% of CMIP5 models, according to an analysis based on combining a simple climate–carbon-cycle model with estimated ranges for key climate system properties.

    • Richard J. Millar
    • , Jan S. Fuglestvedt
    • , Pierre Friedlingstein
    • , Joeri Rogelj
    • , Michael J. Grubb
    • , H. Damon Matthews
    • , Ragnhild B. Skeie
    • , Piers M. Forster
    • , David J. Frame
    •  & Myles R. Allen
  • Article |

    A decrease in mafic continental crust coincides with the rise of O2 in the Earth’s surface environments about 3 billion years ago, according to an analysis of sediment chemistry. Reduced rates of serpentinization of mafic material, which produces chemicals that react with O2, could explain the link.

    • Matthijs A. Smit
    •  & Klaus Mezger
  • Perspective |

    The careful compilation and interpretation of molybdenum isotopes can track the expansion of sulfidic bottom waters. A synthesis and analysis of data from two Mesozoic ocean anoxic events and the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum applies these techniques to constrain past ocean deoxygenation.

    • Alexander J. Dickson
  • News and Views |

    Serpentine minerals in Earth's early upper continental crust suppressed atmospheric oxygen levels until the upper crust became granitic.

    • J. Elis Hoffmann
  • Article |

    Seismic waves can trigger further fault slip. Analysis of seismic and geodetic data shows that seismic waves from the 2016 Kaikōura, New Zealand earthquake were amplified by subduction zone sediments, triggering slow fault slip up to 600 km away.

    • Laura M. Wallace
    • , Yoshihiro Kaneko
    • , Sigrún Hreinsdóttir
    • , Ian Hamling
    • , Zhigang Peng
    • , Noel Bartlow
    • , Elisabetta D’Anastasio
    •  & Bill Fry
  • News and Views |

    Changes in dust flux, export productivity, and bottom-water oxygenation in the equatorial Pacific Ocean have been tightly linked with variations in North Atlantic climate over the past 100,000 years, according to analyses of marine sediments.

    • Andrea Erhardt
  • Article |

    Super-eruptions are fed by large magma reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks erupted in New Mexico suggest the magma was stored under cool conditions in the crust for 600,000 years, before late-stage heating triggered an eruption.

    • Dawid Szymanowski
    • , Jörn-Frederik Wotzlaw
    • , Ben S. Ellis
    • , Olivier Bachmann
    • , Marcel Guillong
    •  & Albrecht von Quadt
  • Editorial |

    Scientists based in North America and men are overrepresented in our authors' reviewer suggestions.

  • Review |

    Climate sensitivity, the long-term warming due to doubled atmospheric CO2 levels, is estimated in the range of 1.5 °C to 4.5 °C. A synthesis of work reveals that whether the value falls at the high or low end, future emissions will have to be strongly limited.

    • Reto Knutti
    • , Maria A. A. Rugenstein
    •  & Gabriele C. Hegerl
  • Article |

    Atmospheric organic compounds are central to key chemical processes that influence air quality. Concurrent measurements of a wide range of these compounds, including previously unmeasured ones, provide closure on OH reactivity.

    • James F. Hunter
    • , Douglas A. Day
    • , Brett B. Palm
    • , Reddy L. N. Yatavelli
    • , Arthur W. H. Chan
    • , Lisa Kaser
    • , Luca Cappellin
    • , Patrick L. Hayes
    • , Eben S. Cross
    • , Anthony J. Carrasquillo
    • , Pedro Campuzano-Jost
    • , Harald Stark
    • , Yunliang Zhao
    • , Thorsten Hohaus
    • , James N. Smith
    • , Armin Hansel
    • , Thomas Karl
    • , Allen H. Goldstein
    • , Alex Guenther
    • , Douglas R. Worsnop
    • , Joel A. Thornton
    • , Colette L. Heald
    • , Jose L. Jimenez
    •  & Jesse H. Kroll
  • Article |

    Earthquakes can occur at great depths in the Earth, within subducting tectonic plates. Deformation experiments suggest these deep earthquakes can be triggered by localized heating of the slabs under high pressures.

    • Tomohiro Ohuchi
    • , Xinglin Lei
    • , Hiroaki Ohfuji
    • , Yuji Higo
    • , Yoshinori Tange
    • , Takeshi Sakai
    • , Kiyoshi Fujino
    •  & Tetsuo Irifune
  • Article |

    Venus is covered by thick clouds that move with the prevailing winds. Images from JAXA’s Akatsuki orbiter taken in July 2016 reveal more variability deep in the cloud layer than expected, including a feature consistent with an equatorial jet.

    • Takeshi Horinouchi
    • , Shin-ya Murakami
    • , Takehiko Satoh
    • , Javier Peralta
    • , Kazunori Ogohara
    • , Toru Kouyama
    • , Takeshi Imamura
    • , Hiroki Kashimura
    • , Sanjay S. Limaye
    • , Kevin McGouldrick
    • , Masato Nakamura
    • , Takao M. Sato
    • , Ko-ichiro Sugiyama
    • , Masahiro Takagi
    • , Shigeto Watanabe
    • , Manabu Yamada
    • , Atsushi Yamazaki
    •  & Eliot F. Young
  • News and Views |

    A fast equatorial jet in the Venusian cloud layer has been revealed by the Akatsuki orbiter by tracking cloud movement in near-infrared images. The findings suggest that the Venusian atmosphere is more variable than previously thought.

    • Alain Hauchecorne
  • Article |

    The strength of the global meridional overturning circulation in the stratosphere is uncertain. An analysis of satellite data, reanalyses and model simulations reveals a strength of 6.3–7.6 × 109 kg s−1, but no convergence at higher altitudes.

    • Marianna Linz
    • , R. Alan Plumb
    • , Edwin P. Gerber
    • , Florian J. Haenel
    • , Gabriele Stiller
    • , Douglas E. Kinnison
    • , Alison Ming
    •  & Jessica L. Neu
  • Commentary |

    Developments in attribution science are improving our ability to detect human influence on extreme weather events. By implication, the legal duties of government, business and others to manage foreseeable harms are broadening, and may lead to more climate change litigation.

    • Sophie Marjanac
    • , Lindene Patton
    •  & James Thornton
  • Article |

    The Martian atmosphere hosts water-ice clouds, but it is thought that any snow precipitation settles slowly, rather than in storms. Martian meteorology simulations suggest that localized convective snowstorms can occur on Mars during the night.

    • Aymeric Spiga
    • , David P. Hinson
    • , Jean-Baptiste Madeleine
    • , Thomas Navarro
    • , Ehouarn Millour
    • , François Forget
    •  & Franck Montmessin