Authors: Aravind Devarakonda & Joseph G. Checkelsky

Two studies show evidence that single layers of a transition metal dichalcogenide are two-dimensional topological insulators.

]]>Author: Thilo Stöferle

Flow without friction is a strange phenomenon usually seen in quantum fluids that are cooled to temperatures near absolute zero, but features of superfluidity have now been seen with polaritons at ambient conditions.

]]>Author: Koji Muraki

An excitonic Bose–Einstein condensate has so far been realized only in particular semiconductor heterostructure setups. Now, experiments show that such condensates can form in double graphene bilayers separated by hexagonal boron nitride.

]]>Author: Monika Schleier-Smith

Quantum information encoded in one of many interacting particles quickly becomes scrambled. A set of tools for tracking this process is on its way.

]]>Author: Raffaele Flaminio

The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen type of quantum entanglement can be used to improve the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors beyond the quantum limit.

]]>Author: Alexandra Landsman

The shorter the antenna, the higher the frequency — so what happens when nanoantennas hit optical frequencies? One answer may lead to high-harmonic generation without the need for high-powered lasers.

]]>Author: Klaus Kroy

Standard rheology tells us how a cell responds to deformation. But ramping up the frequency reveals more about its internal dynamics and morphology, mapping a route to improved drug treatments — and possible insight into the malignancy of cancers.

]]>Authors: Dario Bercioux & Sander Otte

Solid-state systems capable of simulating the theoretical predictions of condensed matter are in short supply. Demonstrations of electronic Lieb lattices using two different platforms suggest this may be about to change.

]]>Authors: Marc Gabay & Jean-Marc Triscone

Ferroelectricity and superconductivity do not have much in common. Now, a superconducting and a ferroelectric-like state have been found to coexist in a doped perovskite oxide.

]]>Author: Yuhai Tu

A curious peak in the distribution describing stochastic switching in bacterial motility had researchers confounded. But a careful study performed under varying mechanical conditions has now revealed that the breaking of detailed balance is to blame.

]]>Author: Roland Wester

Cold collisions between hydrogen molecules and helium atoms reveal how the change from spherical to non-spherical symmetry creates a quantum scattering resonance.

]]>Authors: James S. Bennett & Warwick P. Bowen

Radiation pressure noise from squeezed light constrains the precision of sensing devices such as improved gravitational wave interferometers.

]]>Author: Frédéric Mila

The topological degeneracy associated with Majorana edge states has been measured in a spin-1/2 chain of cobalt atoms, thereby opening new avenues in low-dimensional quantum magnetism.

]]>Authors: Sascha Hoinka, Paul Dyke, Marcus G. Lingham, Jami J. Kinnunen, Georg M. Bruun & Chris J. Vale

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a central paradigm of elementary particle physics, magnetism, superfluidity and superconductivity. According to Goldstone’s theorem, phase transitions that break continuous symmetries lead to the existence of gapless excitations in the long-wavelength limit. These Goldstone modes can become the dominant low-energy excitation, showing that symmetry breaking has a profound impact on the physical properties of matter. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the elementary excitations in a homogeneous strongly interacting Fermi gas through the crossover from a Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules using two-photon Bragg spectroscopy. The spectra exhibit a discrete Goldstone mode, associated with the broken-symmetry superfluid phase, as well as pair-breaking single-particle excitations. Our techniques yield a direct determination of the superfluid pairing gap and speed of sound in close agreement with strong-coupling theories.

]]>Authors: Stefano Martiniani, K. Julian Schrenk, Kabir Ramola, Bulbul Chakraborty & Daan Frenkel

In the late 1980s, Sam Edwards proposed a possible statistical-mechanical framework to describe the properties of disordered granular materials. A key assumption underlying the theory was that all jammed packings are equally likely. In the intervening years it has never been possible to test this bold hypothesis directly. Here we present simulations that provide direct evidence that at the unjamming point, all packings of soft repulsive particles are equally likely, even though generically, jammed packings are not. Typically, jammed granular systems are observed precisely at the unjamming point since grains are not very compressible. Our results therefore support Edwards’ original conjecture. We also present evidence that at unjamming the configurational entropy of the system is maximal.

]]>Authors: Shujie Tang, Chaofan Zhang, Dillon Wong, Zahra Pedramrazi, Hsin-Zon Tsai, Chunjing Jia, Brian Moritz, Martin Claassen, Hyejin Ryu, Salman Kahn, Juan Jiang, Hao Yan, Makoto Hashimoto, Donghui Lu, Robert G. Moore, Chan-Cuk Hwang, Choongyu Hwang, Zahid Hussain, Yulin Chen, Miguel M. Ugeda, Zhi Liu, Xiaoming Xie, Thomas P. Devereaux, Michael F. Crommie, Sung-Kwan Mo & Zhi-Xun Shen

A quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator is a novel two-dimensional quantum state of matter that features quantized Hall conductance in the absence of a magnetic field, resulting from topologically protected dissipationless edge states that bridge the energy gap opened by band inversion and strong spin–orbit coupling. By investigating the electronic structure of epitaxially grown monolayer 1T'-WTe2 using angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and first-principles calculations, we observe clear signatures of topological band inversion and bandgap opening, which are the hallmarks of a QSH state. Scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements further confirm the correct crystal structure and the existence of a bulk bandgap, and provide evidence for a modified electronic structure near the edge that is consistent with the expectations for a QSH insulator. Our results establish monolayer 1T'-WTe2 as a new class of QSH insulator with large bandgap in a robust two-dimensional materials family of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs).

]]>Authors: L. Chaix, G. Ghiringhelli, Y. Y. Peng, M. Hashimoto, B. Moritz, K. Kummer, N. B. Brookes, Y. He, S. Chen, S. Ishida, Y. Yoshida, H. Eisaki, M. Salluzzo, L. Braicovich, Z.-X. Shen, T. P. Devereaux & W.-S. Lee

Experimental evidence on high-Tc cuprates reveals ubiquitous charge density wave (CDW) modulations, which coexist with superconductivity. Although the CDW had been predicted by theory, important questions remain about the extent to which the CDW influences lattice and charge degrees of freedom and its characteristics as functions of doping and temperature. These questions are intimately connected to the origin of the CDW and its relation to the mysterious cuprate pseudogap. Here, we use ultrahigh-resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering to reveal new CDW character in underdoped Bi2.2Sr1.8Ca0.8Dy0.2Cu2O8+δ. At low temperature, we observe dispersive excitations from an incommensurate CDW that induces anomalously enhanced phonon intensity, unseen using other techniques. Near the pseudogap temperature T∗, the CDW persists, but the associated excitations significantly weaken with an indication of CDW wavevector shift. The dispersive CDW excitations, phonon anomaly, and analysis of the CDW wavevector provide a comprehensive momentum-space picture of complex CDW behaviour and point to a closer relationship with the pseudogap state.

]]>Authors: Theo Torres, Sam Patrick, Antonin Coutant, Maurício Richartz, Edmund W. Tedford & Silke Weinfurtner

When an incident wave scatters off of an obstacle, it is partially reflected and partially transmitted. In theory, if the obstacle is rotating, waves can be amplified in the process, extracting energy from the scatterer. Here we describe in detail the first laboratory detection of this phenomenon, known as superradiance. We observed that waves propagating on the surface of water can be amplified after being scattered by a draining vortex. The maximum amplification measured was 14% ± 8%, obtained for 3.70 Hz waves, in a 6.25-cm-deep fluid, consistent with the superradiant scattering caused by rapid rotation. We expect our experimental findings to be relevant to black-hole physics, since shallow water waves scattering on a draining fluid constitute an analogue of a black hole, as well as to hydrodynamics, due to the close relation to over-reflection instabilities.

]]>Authors: Giovanni Lerario, Antonio Fieramosca, Fábio Barachati, Dario Ballarini, Konstantinos S. Daskalakis, Lorenzo Dominici, Milena De Giorgi, Stefan A. Maier, Giuseppe Gigli, Stéphane Kéna-Cohen & Daniele Sanvitto

Superfluidity—the suppression of scattering in a quantum fluid at velocities below a critical value—is one of the most striking manifestations of the collective behaviour typical of Bose–Einstein condensates. This phenomenon, akin to superconductivity in metals, has until now been observed only at prohibitively low cryogenic temperatures. For atoms, this limit is imposed by the small thermal de Broglie wavelength, which is inversely related to the particle mass. Even in the case of ultralight quasiparticles such as exciton-polaritons, superfluidity has been demonstrated only at liquid helium temperatures. In this case, the limit is not imposed by the mass, but instead by the small binding energy of Wannier–Mott excitons, which sets the upper temperature limit. Here we demonstrate a transition from supersonic to superfluid flow in a polariton condensate under ambient conditions. This is achieved by using an organic microcavity supporting stable Frenkel exciton-polaritons at room temperature. This result paves the way not only for tabletop studies of quantum hydrodynamics, but also for room-temperature polariton devices that can be robustly protected from scattering.

]]>Authors: Qiong Ma, Su-Yang Xu, Ching-Kit Chan, Cheng-Long Zhang, Guoqing Chang, Yuxuan Lin, Weiwei Xie, Tomás Palacios, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, Patrick A. Lee, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero & Nuh Gedik

A Weyl semimetal is a novel topological phase of matter, in which Weyl fermions arise as pseudo-magnetic monopoles in its momentum space. The chirality of the Weyl fermions, given by the sign of the monopole charge, is central to the Weyl physics, since it directly serves as the sign of the topological number and gives rise to exotic properties such as Fermi arcs and the chiral anomaly. Here, we directly detect the chirality of the Weyl fermions by measuring the photocurrent in response to circularly polarized mid-infrared light. The resulting photocurrent is determined by both the chirality of Weyl fermions and that of the photons. Our results pave the way for realizing a wide range of theoretical proposals for studying and controlling the Weyl fermions and their associated quantum anomalies by optical and electrical means. More broadly, the two chiralities, analogous to the two valleys in two-dimensional materials, lead to a new degree of freedom in a three-dimensional crystal with potential novel pathways to store and carry information.

]]>Authors: J. I. A. Li, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, J. Hone & C. R. Dean

A spatially indirect exciton is created when an electron and a hole, confined to separate layers of a double quantum well system, bind to form a composite boson. Such excitons are long-lived, and in the limit of strong interactions are predicted to undergo a Bose–Einstein condensate-like phase transition into a superfluid ground state. Here, we report evidence of an exciton condensate in the quantum Hall effect regime of double-layer structures of bilayer graphene. Interlayer correlation is identified by quantized Hall drag at matched layer densities, and the dissipationless nature of the phase is confirmed in the counterflow geometry. A selection rule for the condensate phase is observed involving both the orbital and valley indices of bilayer graphene. Our results establish double bilayer graphene as an ideal system for studying the rich phase diagram of strongly interacting bosonic particles in the solid state.

]]>Authors: Xiaomeng Liu, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Bertrand I. Halperin & Philip Kim

An exciton condensate is a Bose–Einstein condensate of electron and hole pairs bound by the Coulomb interaction. In an electronic double layer (EDL) subject to strong magnetic fields, filled Landau states in one layer bind with empty states of the other layer to form an exciton condensate. Here we report exciton condensation in a bilayer graphene EDL separated by hexagonal boron nitride. Driving current in one graphene layer generates a near-quantized Hall voltage in the other layer, resulting in coherent exciton transport. Owing to the strong Coulomb coupling across the atomically thin dielectric, quantum Hall drag in graphene appears at a temperature ten times higher than previously observed in a GaAs EDL. The wide-range tunability of densities and displacement fields enables exploration of a rich phase diagram of Bose–Einstein condensates across Landau levels with different filling factors and internal quantum degrees of freedom. The observed robust exciton condensation opens up opportunities to investigate various many-body exciton phases.

]]>Authors: L. Seiffert, Q. Liu, S. Zherebtsov, A. Trabattoni, P. Rupp, M. C. Castrovilli, M. Galli, F. Süßmann, K. Wintersperger, J. Stierle, G. Sansone, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, I. Halfpap, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, F. Krausz, M. Nisoli, T. Fennel, F. Calegari & M. F. Kling

The scattering of electrons in dielectric materials is central to laser nanomachining, light-driven electronics and radiation damage. Here, we demonstrate real-time access to electron scattering by implementing attosecond streaking spectroscopy on dielectric nanoparticles: photoelectrons are generated inside the nanoparticles and both their transport through the material and photoemission are tracked on an attosecond timescale. We develop a theoretical framework for attosecond streaking spectroscopy in dielectrics and identify that the presence of the internal field inside the material cancels the influence of elastic scattering, enabling the selective characterization of the inelastic scattering time. The approach is demonstrated on silica nanoparticles, where an inelastic mean-free path is extracted for 20–30 eV. Our approach enables the characterization of inelastic scattering in various dielectric solids and liquids, including water, which can be studied in the form of droplets.

]]>Authors: Jacob Johansen, B. J. DeSalvo, Krutik Patel & Cheng Chin

Efimov physics is a universal phenomenon in quantum three-body systems. For systems with resonant two-body interactions, Efimov predicted an infinite series of three-body bound states with geometric scaling symmetry. These Efimov states, first observed in cold caesium atoms, have been recently reported in a variety of other atomic systems. The intriguing prospect of a universal absolute Efimov resonance position across Feshbach resonances remains an open question. Theories predict a strong dependence on the resonance strength for closed-channel-dominated Feshbach resonances, whereas experimental results have so far been consistent with the universal prediction. Here we directly compare the Efimov spectra in a 6Li–133Cs mixture near two Feshbach resonances which are very different in their resonance strengths, but otherwise almost identical. Our result shows a clear dependence of the absolute Efimov resonance position on Feshbach resonance strength and a clear departure from the universal prediction for the narrow Feshbach resonance.

]]>Authors: Eva-Maria Roller, Lucas V. Besteiro, Claudia Pupp, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Alexander O. Govorov & Tim Liedl

Plasmonic nanoparticles hold great promise as photon handling elements and as channels for coherent transfer of energy and information in future all-optical computing devices. Coherent energy oscillations between two spatially separated plasmonic entities via a virtual middle state exemplify electron-based population transfer, but their realization requires precise nanoscale positioning of heterogeneous particles. Here, we show the assembly and optical analysis of a triple-particle system consisting of two gold nanoparticles with an inter-spaced silver island. We observe strong plasmonic coupling between the spatially separated gold particles, mediated by the connecting silver particle, with almost no dissipation of energy. As the excitation energy of the silver island exceeds that of the gold particles, only quasi-occupation of the silver transfer channel is possible. We describe this effect both with exact classical electrodynamic modelling and qualitative quantum-mechanical calculations. We identify the formation of strong hotspots between all particles as the main mechanism for the lossless coupling and thus coherent ultrafast energy transfer between the remote partners. Our findings could prove useful for quantum gate operations, as well as for classical charge and information transfer processes.

]]>Authors: K. Grube, S. Zaum, O. Stockert, Q. Si & H. v. Löhneysen

The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any system in equilibrium has to vanish at absolute zero temperature. At nonzero temperatures, on the other hand, matter is expected to accumulate entropy near a quantum critical point, where it undergoes a continuous transition from one ground state to another. Here, we determine, based on general thermodynamic principles, the spatial-dimensional profile of the entropy S near a quantum critical point and its steepest descent in the corresponding multidimensional stress space. We demonstrate this approach for the canonical quantum critical compound CeCu 6−xAux near its onset of antiferromagnetic order. We are able to link the directional stress dependence of S to the previously determined geometry of quantum critical fluctuations. Our demonstration of the multidimensional entropy landscape provides the foundation to understand how quantum criticality nucleates novel phases such as high-temperature superconductivity.

]]>Authors: P. A. McClarty, F. Krüger, T. Guidi, S. F. Parker, K. Refson, A. W. Parker, D. Prabhakaran & R. Coldea

The twin discoveries of the quantum Hall effect, in the 1980s, and of topological band insulators, in the 2000s, were landmarks in physics that enriched our view of the electronic properties of solids. In a nutshell, these discoveries have taught us that quantum mechanical wavefunctions in crystalline solids may carry nontrivial topological invariants which have ramifications for the observable physics. One of the side effects of the recent topological insulator revolution has been that such physics is much more widespread than was appreciated ten years ago. For example, while topological insulators were originally studied in the context of electron wavefunctions, recent work has initiated a hunt for topological insulators in bosonic systems: in photonic crystals, in the vibrational modes of crystals, and in the excitations of ordered magnets. Using inelastic neutron scattering along with theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that, in a weak magnetic field, the dimerized quantum magnet SrCu2(BO3)2 is a bosonic topological insulator with topologically protected chiral edge modes of triplon excitations.

]]>Authors: Landry Bretheau, Joel I-Jan Wang, Riccardo Pisoni, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi & Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

A normal conductor placed in good contact with a superconductor can inherit its remarkable electronic properties. This proximity effect microscopically originates from the formation in the conductor of entangled electron–hole states, called Andreev states. Spectroscopic studies of Andreev states have been performed in just a handful of systems. The unique geometry, electronic structure and high mobility of graphene make it a novel platform for studying Andreev physics in two dimensions. Here we use a full van der Waals heterostructure to perform tunnelling spectroscopy measurements of the proximity effect in superconductor–graphene–superconductor junctions. The measured energy spectra, which depend on the phase difference between the superconductors, reveal the presence of a continuum of Andreev bound states. Moreover, our device heterostructure geometry and materials enable us to measure the Andreev spectrum as a function of the graphene Fermi energy, showing a transition between different mesoscopic regimes. Furthermore, by experimentally introducing a novel concept, the supercurrent spectral density, we determine the supercurrent–phase relation in a tunnelling experiment, thus establishing the connection between Andreev physics at finite energy and the Josephson effect. This work opens up new avenues for probing exotic topological phases of matter in hybrid superconducting Dirac materials.

]]>Authors: Annafrancesca Rigato, Atsushi Miyagi, Simon Scheuring & Felix Rico

Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range—up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components—provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

]]>Authors: Marlou R. Slot, Thomas S. Gardenier, Peter H. Jacobse, Guido C. P. van Miert, Sander N. Kempkes, Stephan J. M. Zevenhuizen, Cristiane Morais Smith, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh & Ingmar Swart

Geometry, whether on the atomic or nanoscale, is a key factor for the electronic band structure of materials. Some specific geometries give rise to novel and potentially useful electronic bands. For example, a honeycomb lattice leads to Dirac-type bands where the charge carriers behave as massless particles. Theoretical predictions are triggering the exploration of novel two-dimensional (2D) geometries, such as graphynes and the kagomé and Lieb lattices. The Lieb lattice is the 2D analogue of the 3D lattice exhibited by perovskites; it is a square-depleted lattice, which is characterized by a band structure featuring Dirac cones intersected by a flat band. Whereas photonic and cold-atom Lieb lattices have been demonstrated, an electronic equivalent in 2D is difficult to realize in an existing material. Here, we report an electronic Lieb lattice formed by the surface state electrons of Cu(111) confined by an array of carbon monoxide molecules positioned with a scanning tunnelling microscope. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy, spectroscopy and wavefunction mapping, we confirm the predicted characteristic electronic structure of the Lieb lattice. The experimental findings are corroborated by muffin-tin and tight-binding calculations. At higher energies, second-order electronic patterns are observed, which are equivalent to a super-Lieb lattice.

]]>Authors: Carl Willem Rischau, Xiao Lin, Christoph P. Grams, Dennis Finck, Steffen Harms, Johannes Engelmayer, Thomas Lorenz, Yann Gallais, Benoît Fauqué, Joachim Hemberger & Kamran Behnia

SrTiO3, a quantum paraelectric, becomes a metal with a superconducting instability after removal of an extremely small number of oxygen atoms. It turns into a ferroelectric upon substitution of a tiny fraction of strontium atoms with calcium. The two orders may be accidental neighbours or intimately connected, as in the picture of quantum critical ferroelectricity. Here, we show that in Sr1−xCaxTiO3−δ (0.002 < x < 0.009, δ < 0.001) the ferroelectric order coexists with dilute metallicity and its superconducting instability in a finite window of doping. At a critical carrier density, which scales with the Ca content, a quantum phase transition destroys the ferroelectric order. We detect an upturn in the normal-state scattering and a significant modification of the superconducting dome in the vicinity of this quantum phase transition. The enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature with calcium substitution documents the role played by ferroelectric vicinity in the precocious emergence of superconductivity in this system, restricting possible theoretical scenarios for pairing.

]]>Authors: Zaiyao Fei, Tauno Palomaki, Sanfeng Wu, Wenjin Zhao, Xinghan Cai, Bosong Sun, Paul Nguyen, Joseph Finney, Xiaodong Xu & David H. Cobden

A two-dimensional topological insulator (2DTI) is guaranteed to have a helical one-dimensional edge mode in which spin is locked to momentum, producing the quantum spin Hall effect and prohibiting elastic backscattering at zero magnetic field. No monolayer material has yet been shown to be a 2DTI, but recently the Weyl semimetal WTe2 was predicted to become a 2DTI in monolayer form if a bulk gap opens. Here, we report that, at temperatures below about 100 K, monolayer WTe2 does become insulating in its interior, while the edges still conduct. The edge conduction is strongly suppressed by an in-plane magnetic field and is independent of gate voltage, save for mesoscopic fluctuations that grow on cooling due to a zero-bias anomaly, which reduces the linear-response conductance. Bilayer WTe2 also becomes insulating at low temperatures but does not show edge conduction. Many of these observations are consistent with monolayer WTe2 being a 2DTI. However, the low-temperature edge conductance, for contacts spacings down to 150 nm, never reaches values higher than ∼20 μS, about half the predicted value of e2/h, suggesting significant elastic scattering in the edge.

]]>Authors: Yoshitaka Naitoh, Robert Turanský, Ján Brndiar, Yan Jun Li, Ivan Štich & Yasuhiro Sugawara

Probing physical quantities on the nanoscale that have directionality, such as magnetic moments, electric dipoles, or the force response of a surface, is essential for characterizing functionalized materials for nanotechnological device applications. Currently, such physical quantities are usually experimentally obtained as scalars. To investigate the physical properties of a surface on the nanoscale in depth, these properties must be measured as vectors. Here we demonstrate a three-force-component detection method, based on multi-frequency atomic force microscopy on the subatomic scale and apply it to a Ge(001)-c(4 × 2) surface. We probed the surface-normal and surface-parallel force components above the surface and their direction-dependent anisotropy and expressed them as a three-dimensional force vector distribution. Access to the atomic-scale force distribution on the surface will enable better understanding of nanoscale surface morphologies, chemical composition and reactions, probing nanostructures via atomic or molecular manipulation, and provide insights into the behaviour of nano-machines on substrates.

]]>Authors: T. Arikawa, K. Hyodo, Y. Kadoya & K. Tanaka

An insulating bulk state is a prerequisite for the protection of topological edge states. In quantum Hall systems, the thermal excitation of delocalized electrons is the main route to breaking bulk insulation. In equilibrium, the only way to achieve a clear bulk gap is to use a high-quality crystal under high magnetic field at low temperature. However, bulk conduction could also be suppressed in a system driven out of equilibrium such that localized states in the Landau levels are selectively occupied. Here we report a transient suppression of bulk conduction induced by terahertz wave excitation between the Landau levels in a GaAs quantum Hall system. Strikingly, the Hall resistivity almost reaches the quantized value at a temperature where the exact quantization is normally disrupted by thermal fluctuations. The electron localization is realized by the long-range potential fluctuations, which are a unique and inherent feature of quantum Hall systems. Our results demonstrate a new means of effecting dynamical control of topology by manipulating bulk conduction using light.

]]>Authors: G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. Siadat Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Yu Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini & P. B. Corkum

Plasmonic antennas can enhance the intensity of a nanojoule laser pulse by localizing the electric field in their proximity. It has been proposed that the field can become strong enough to convert the fundamental laser frequency into high-order harmonics through an extremely nonlinear interaction with gas atoms that occupy the nanoscopic volume surrounding the antennas. However, the small number of gas atoms that can occupy this volume limits the generation of high harmonics. Here we use an array of monopole nano-antennas to demonstrate plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation directly from the supporting crystalline silicon substrate. The high density of the substrate compared with a gas allows macroscopic buildup of harmonic emission. Despite the sparse coverage of antennas on the surface, harmonic emission is ten times brighter than without antennas. Imaging the high-harmonic radiation will allow nanometre and attosecond measurement of the plasmonic field thereby enabling more sensitive plasmon sensors while opening a new path to extreme-ultraviolet-frequency combs.

]]>Authors: Robert Drost, Teemu Ojanen, Ari Harju & Peter Liljeroth

Topological materials exhibit protected edge modes that have been proposed for applications in, for example, spintronics and quantum computation. Although a number of such systems exist, it would be desirable to be able to test theoretical proposals in an artificial system that allows precise control over the key parameters of the model. The essential physics of several topological systems can be captured by tight-binding models, which can also be implemented in artificial lattices. Here, we show that this method can be realized in a vacancy lattice in a chlorine monolayer on a Cu(100) surface. We use low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) to fabricate such lattices with atomic precision and probe the resulting local density of states (LDOS) with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS). We create analogues of two tight-binding models of fundamental importance: the polyacetylene (dimer) chain with topological domain-wall states, and the Lieb lattice with a flat electron band. These results provide an important step forward in the ongoing effort to realize designer quantum materials with tailored properties.

]]>Authors: A. Jain, M. Krautloher, J. Porras, G. H. Ryu, D. P. Chen, D. L. Abernathy, J. T. Park, A. Ivanov, J. Chaloupka, G. Khaliullin, B. Keimer & B. J. Kim

Condensed-matter analogues of the Higgs boson in particle physics allow insights into its behaviour in different symmetries and dimensionalities. Evidence for the Higgs mode has been reported in a number of different settings, including ultracold atomic gases, disordered superconductors, and dimerized quantum magnets. However, decay processes of the Higgs mode (which are eminently important in particle physics) have not yet been studied in condensed matter due to the lack of a suitable material system coupled to a direct experimental probe. A quantitative understanding of these processes is particularly important for low-dimensional systems, where the Higgs mode decays rapidly and has remained elusive to most experimental probes. Here, we discover and study the Higgs mode in a two-dimensional antiferromagnet using spin-polarized inelastic neutron scattering. Our spin-wave spectra of Ca2RuO4 directly reveal a well-defined, dispersive Higgs mode, which quickly decays into transverse Goldstone modes at the antiferromagnetic ordering wavevector. Through a complete mapping of the transverse modes in the reciprocal space, we uniquely specify the minimal model Hamiltonian and describe the decay process. We thus establish a novel condensed-matter platform for research on the dynamics of the Higgs mode.

]]>Authors: Hannes Busche, Paul Huillery, Simon W. Ball, Teodora Ilieva, Matthew P. A. Jones & Charles S. Adams

In conventional nonlinear optics, linear quantum optics, and cavity quantum electrodynamics to create effective photon–photon interactions photons must have, at one time, interacted with matter inside a common medium. In contrast, in Rydberg quantum optics, optical photons are coherently and reversibly mapped onto collective atomic Rydberg excitations, giving rise to dipole-mediated effective photon–photon interactions that are long range. Consequently, a spatial overlap between the light modes is no longer required. We demonstrate such a contactless coupling between photons stored as collective Rydberg excitations in spatially separate optical media. The potential induced by each photon modifies the retrieval mode of its neighbour, leading to correlations between them. We measure these correlations as a function of interaction strength, distance and storage time, demonstrating an effective interaction between photons separated by 15 times their wavelength. Contactless effective photon–photon interactions are relevant for scalable multichannel photonic devices and the study of strongly correlated many-body dynamics using light.

]]>Authors: Kevin A. Fischer, Lukas Hanschke, Jakob Wierzbowski, Tobias Simmet, Constantin Dory, Jonathan J. Finley, Jelena Vučković & Kai Müller

A two-level atom can generate a strong many-body interaction with light under pulsed excitation. The best known effect is single-photon generation, where a short Gaussian laser pulse is converted into a Lorentzian single-photon wavepacket. However, recent studies suggested that scattering of intense laser fields off a two-level atom may generate oscillations in two-photon emission that come out of phase with the Rabi oscillations, as the power of the pulse increases. Here, we provide an intuitive explanation for these oscillations using a quantum trajectory approach and show how they may preferentially result in emission of two-photon pulses. Experimentally, we observe the signatures of these oscillations by measuring the bunching of photon pulses scattered off a two-level quantum system. Our theory and measurements provide insight into the re-excitation process that plagues on-demand single-photon sources while suggesting the possibility of producing new multi-photon states.

]]>Authors: Dan Daniel, Jaakko V. I. Timonen, Ruoping Li, Seneca J. Velling & Joanna Aizenberg

]]>Authors: F. Capitani, B. Langerome, J.-B. Brubach, P. Roy, A. Drozdov, M. I. Eremets, E. J. Nicol, J. P. Carbotte & T. Timusk

]]>Authors: Andrea Cavagna, Daniele Conti, Chiara Creato, Lorenzo Del Castello, Irene Giardina, Tomas S. Grigera, Stefania Melillo, Leonardo Parisi & Massimiliano Viale

]]>Authors: Ye. O. Kazakov, J. Ongena, J. C. Wright, S. J. Wukitch, E. Lerche, M. J. Mantsinen, D. Van Eester, T. Craciunescu, V. G. Kiptily, Y. Lin, M. Nocente, F. Nabais, M. F. F. Nave, Y. Baranov, J. Bielecki, R. Bilato, V. Bobkov, K. Crombé, A. Czarnecka, J. M. Faustin, R. Felton, M. Fitzgerald, D. Gallart, L. Giacomelli, T. Golfinopoulos, A. E. Hubbard, Ph. Jacquet, T. Johnson, M. Lennholm, T. Loarer, M. Porkolab, S. E. Sharapov, D. Valcarcel, M. Van Schoor & H. Weisen

]]>Authors: Seán M. Murray & Victor Sourjik

]]>Authors: Susanne F. Fenz, Timo Bihr, Daniel Schmidt, Rudolf Merkel, Udo Seifert, Kheya Sengupta & Ana-Sunčana Smith

]]>Authors: Junjie Zhang, A. S. Botana, J. W. Freeland, D. Phelan, Hong Zheng, V. Pardo, M. R. Norman & J. F. Mitchell

]]>Authors: Wolfgang Pfaff, Christopher J. Axline, Luke D. Burkhart, Uri Vool, Philip Reinhold, Luigi Frunzio, Liang Jiang, Michel H. Devoret & Robert J. Schoelkopf

]]>Authors: Yongbao Sun, Yoseob Yoon, Mark Steger, Gangqiang Liu, Loren N. Pfeiffer, Ken West, David W. Snoke & Keith A. Nelson

]]>Authors: David J. van Woerkom, Alex Proutski, Bernard van Heck, Daniël Bouman, Jukka I. Väyrynen, Leonid I. Glazman, Peter Krogstrup, Jesper Nygård, Leo P. Kouwenhoven & Attila Geresdi

]]>Authors: Ahmet Avsar, Jun Y. Tan, Marcin Kurpas, Martin Gmitra, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Jaroslav Fabian & Barbaros Özyilmaz

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