Browse Articles

  • Research Highlight |

    In zebrafish, pioneer axons of the dorsal root ganglia require the release of synaptic-like vesicles to enter the spinal cord, suggesting that synaptic vesicles have a role in circuit formation ahead of synaptogenesis.

    • Katharine H. Wrighton
  • Research Highlight |

    A new study reports that a nociceptin circuit limits motivation during reward-seeking behaviour in mice.

    • Grant Otto
  • Research Highlight |

    A new study reports that Lewy pathology in brain tissue from individuals with Parkinson disease largely comprises membranes and organelles.

    • Darran Yates
  • Review Article |

    Mental imagery plays a role in a variety of cognitive processes such as memory recall. In this review, Joel Pearson discusses recent insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie visual imagery, how imagery can be objectively and reliably measured, and how it affects general cognition.

    • Joel Pearson
  • Review Article |

    The whisker sensorimotor system provides rodents with tactile information about their immediate facial environment. In this Review, Carl Petersen examines the complex neuronal circuits of the whisker-related primary somatosensory cortex and how they contribute to sensorimotor processing.

    • Carl C. H. Petersen
  • Review Article |

    Several specialized macrophage populations reside in the structures that border the mammalian CNS, including the meninges, perivascular spaces and choroid plexus. Prinz and colleagues review the development and characteristics of these ‘CNS-associated macrophages’ and describe their proposed contributions to CNS function and disease.

    • Katrin Kierdorf
    • , Takahiro Masuda
    • , Marta Joana Costa Jordão
    •  & Marco Prinz
  • Research Highlight |

    GABAergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in energy balance regulation via indirect projections to brown adipose tissue where they regulate thermogenesis.

    • Sian Lewis
  • Research Highlight |

    In a mouse model of stroke, induction of TREM1 expression on peripheral myeloid cells magnifies inflammatory responses and neurological dysfunction.

    • Katherine Whalley
  • Review Article |

    Optopharmacology enables endogenous ligands, receptors and ion channels to be rendered sensitive to light. Paoletti, Ellis-Davies and Mourot give an overview of current optopharmacological techniques and tools and describe the neuroscientific insights they have uncovered.

    • Pierre Paoletti
    • , Graham C. R. Ellis-Davies
    •  & Alexandre Mourot
  • Research Highlight |

    A new study finds that, in optogenetic approaches, light delivery itself may affect neural activity via tissue heating.

    • Isobel Leake
  • Review Article |

    Specialized extracellular matrix structures known as perineuronal nets surround the soma and dendrites of many CNS neurons. Fawcett and colleagues provide an update on our current understanding of perineuronal net composition, formation and functional roles in brain function and disease.

    • James W. Fawcett
    • , Toshitaka Oohashi
    •  & Tommaso Pizzorusso
  • Perspective |

    A major challenge in neuroscience is the definition of neuronal types. Here, Paul and Huang give an overview of efforts to classify GABAergic cell types, and propose a framework in which cell types are transcriptionally defined communication elements with characteristic input–output properties.

    • Z. Josh Huang
    •  & Anirban Paul
  • Research Highlight |

    The encoding of salient events as memory traces involves the selective activation of specific neurons in the hippocampus and the inhibition of others, a process shown here to be regulated by GABAergic input from the nucleus incertus in the brainstem.

    • Sian Lewis
  • Research Highlight |

    Ptgds-expressing neurons in the preoptic area of anterior hypothalamus detect increases in brain temperature and reduce core body temperature via increased production of prostaglandin D2.

    • Isobel Leake
  • Review Article |

    The striatum is crucial for learning and decision-making. Cox and Witten provide an updated overview of the roles of different parts of the striatal circuit in learning and decision-making, showing how recent experiments support and contradict previous models.

    • Julia Cox
    •  & Ilana B. Witten
  • Research Highlight |

    Astrocytes internalize and metabolize toxic neuronal lipids in an activity-dependent manner to maintain brain homeostasis.

    • Katherine Whalley
  • Perspective |

    Successful learning and decision-making require estimates of expected uncertainty and unexpected uncertainty. Soltani and Izquierdo define these concepts, describe proposed models of how they may be computed and discuss their neural substrates.

    • Alireza Soltani
    •  & Alicia Izquierdo
  • Perspective |

    Studies that examine brain activity during real-time social interactions may advance our understanding of human social behaviour. Redcay and Schilbach describe progress in ‘second-person’ neuroscience and discuss the insights into the brain mechanisms of social behaviour that have been gained.

    • Elizabeth Redcay
    •  & Leonhard Schilbach
  • Research Highlight |

    Blood-borne pro-ageing signals are transmitted to the brain via VCAM1 and blocking its signalling can prevent cognitive decline in aged mice.

    • Katherine Whalley
  • Perspective |

    In this Opinion article, Martijn van den Heuvel and Olaf Sporns examine alterations in structural and functional brain connectivity across brain disorders. They propose a common landscape for such alterations that is based on principles of network organization.

    • Martijn P. van den Heuvel
    •  & Olaf Sporns
  • Research Highlight |

    Certain cellular functions in artificially reperfused pig brains can be restored and maintained several hours after initial loss of cerebral blood flow.

    • Natasha Bray
  • Review Article |

    The short-term retention of working memory is accompanied by neural delay activity. Sreenivasan and D’Esposito describe how delay activity can be assessed, discuss where in the brain it occurs and why, and examine the possible mechanisms that underlie it.

    • Kartik K. Sreenivasan
    •  & Mark D’Esposito
  • Research Highlight |

    In monkeys, some neurons in the amygdala may simulate a social partner’s decision-making process in a reward-based decision-making task.

    • Darran Yates
  • Research Highlight |

    Certain lasting antidepressant effects of ketamine in a mouse model of depression depend on the restoration of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex.

    • Natasha Bray
  • Review Article |

    Spinal neural circuits are established through the navigation of multiple types of neuronal axon to their appropriate synaptic targets. Chédotal reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control this complex wiring, incorporating recent discoveries of new guidance factors.

    • Alain Chédotal
  • Research Highlight |

    Grid cells in the rat medial entorhinal cortex distort their firing patterns local to a reward in the environment.

    • Natasha Bray
  • Review Article |

    Much of the mammalian nervous system is innervated by neurons that express and release 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). In this Review, Okaty, Commons and Dymecki explore the diversity in the properties and function of the 5-HT neuronal system.

    • Benjamin W. Okaty
    • , Kathryn G. Commons
    •  & Susan M. Dymecki
  • Research Highlight |

    Sensory stimulus-induced gamma oscillations reduce pathology and cognitive dysfunction in mouse models of Alzheimer disease.

    • Darran Yates
  • Research Highlight |

    An intracellular molecule acts in a context-dependent manner to suppress responses to irrelevant guidance cues during axon development.

    • Katherine Whalley