Browse Articles

  • Review Article |

    Cell-extrinsic changes in the systemic environment, transported to the site of action by the blood, have recently been shown to contribute to brain ageing. In this Review, Pluvinage and Wyss-Coray discuss how circulating molecules in the blood modulate brain function in health, ageing and disease.

    • John V. Pluvinage
    •  & Tony Wyss-Coray
  • Review Article |

    Changes in cortical gain enable neurons to respond adaptively to changing inputs. In this Review, Ferguson and Cardin describe the mechanisms that modulate cortical gain, and its effects on and relevance for cognition and behaviour.

    • Katie A. Ferguson
    •  & Jessica A. Cardin
  • Review Article |

    There has been considerable interest in cell-replacement strategies for the treatment of Parkinson disease. In this Review, Parmar, Grealish and Henchcliffe highlight some of the key developments in this field, with a focus on therapies based on dopamine neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

    • Malin Parmar
    • , Shane Grealish
    •  & Claire Henchcliffe
  • Review Article |

    Tissue-clearing methods are now allowing 3D imaging of intact tissues and some entire mammals. In this Review, Ueda and colleagues discuss the various tissue-clearing methods, related techniques and data analysis and management, as well as the application of these methods in neuroscience.

    • Hiroki R. Ueda
    • , Ali Ertürk
    • , Kwanghun Chung
    • , Viviana Gradinaru
    • , Alain Chédotal
    • , Pavel Tomancak
    •  & Philipp J. Keller
  • Research Highlight |

    A new study indicates that adult oligodendrogenesis is important for memory consolidation in mice.

    • Darran Yates
  • Research Highlight |

    Transcriptomic analysis of susceptible and resilient subtypes of retinal ganglion cells following injury reveal resilience-associated genes, which when overexpressed in susceptible types increase survival.

    • Sian Lewis
  • Research Highlight |

    Gut-innervating sensory neurons drive host defensive responses against Salmonella infection in mice.

    • Katherine Whalley
  • Research Highlight |

    Functional deficits in a cortical–brainstem circuit predict which rats are likely to develop compulsive drinking behaviour.

    • Natasha Bray
  • Review Article |

    The impact of RNA modifications, such as RNA methylation, on gene expression and cellular function has been the subject of recent intense investigations. Here Dominissini and colleagues provide an overview of the mechanisms of such epitranscriptomic regulation and their functional consequences in the nervous system.

    • Ido Livneh
    • , Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz
    • , Ninette Amariglio
    • , Gideon Rechavi
    •  & Dan Dominissini
  • Research Highlight |

    Specific subpopulations of vagal mechanoreceptors that sense intestinal stretch are identified by transcriptomic approaches and are shown to induce satiety.

    • Sian Lewis
  • Review Article |

    Although the retinas of most vertebrates share the same basic blueprint, there is substantial variability in their detailed structure and function. Baden and colleagues describe the extent of this diversity and explore the factors that contribute to species-specific adaptations in retinal organization.

    • Tom Baden
    • , Thomas Euler
    •  & Philipp Berens
  • Review Article |

    In Alzheimer disease, the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is thought to drive both tau pathology and neurodegeneration. In this Review, van der Kant et al. discuss the evidence for Aβ-independent drivers of tau pathology in Alzheimer disease and the implications for therapeutic development.

    • Rik van der Kant
    • , Lawrence S. B. Goldstein
    •  & Rik Ossenkoppele
  • Research Highlight |

    RHOA drives the formation of actin arcs in neuronal growth cones in mice, limiting microtubule protrusion and restricting axon growth.

    • Katherine Whalley
  • Review Article |

    In individuals with inflammation of the central nervous system, B cells enter and accumulate in the cerebrospinal fluid, brain parenchyma and perivascular spaces. Here, Joseph Sabatino and colleagues review the contributions of B cells — both in the periphery and sequestered within the central nervous system — to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases.

    • Joseph J. Sabatino Jr
    • , Anne-Katrin Pröbstel
    •  & Scott S. Zamvil
  • Review Article |

    Emerging data suggest a key role for dopamine in the perceptual disturbances that occur in psychotic disorders. In this Review, Horga and Abi-Dargham discuss a framework focused on perceptual inference, emphasizing the role of dopamine and the relevant associative cortico–striatal circuits.

    • Guillermo Horga
    •  & Anissa Abi-Dargham
  • Research Highlight |

    Two studies show that, compared with microglia in anaesthetized mice, microglia in awake mice show reduced surveillance owing to an increase in noradrenaline signalling.

    • Natasha Bray
  • Research Highlight |

    Dendritic activation and action potentials lead to the expression of distinct heterodimers of the inducible transcription factor NPAS4, which show distinct DNA binding patterns; these patterns were recapitulated on exposure of mice to a novel environment.

    • Sian Lewis
  • Review Article |

    The complex spatiotemporal organization and regulation of sleep-related brain activity has been appreciated only in the past decade. Here, Adamantidis and colleagues review neurobiological mechanisms underlying local and large-scale neuronal network oscillations in the sleeping mammalian brain and how they relate to the global architecture of sleep.

    • Antoine R. Adamantidis
    • , Carolina Gutierrez Herrera
    •  & Thomas C. Gent
  • Research Highlight |

    A population of hypothalamic neurons that are active during REM sleep are involved in forgetting.

    • Katherine Whalley
  • Review Article |

    RNA-binding proteins regulate the use of mRNA during periods of stress, in part through the formation of transient membraneless organelles known as stress granules. In this Review, Wolozin and Ivanov examine the biology of such granules in neurons and their potential roles in a number of neurodegenerative diseases.

    • Benjamin Wolozin
    •  & Pavel Ivanov
  • Review Article |

    Rodent models are essential for characterizing the mechanisms underlying depression as well as for the development of fast-acting and innovative antidepressants. Here, Anand Gururajan and colleagues review strategies for inducing depressive-like behaviours and endophenotypes, and discuss how genetic and circuit-dissection techniques might be used to refine existing models and generate new ones.

    • Anand Gururajan
    • , Andreas Reif
    • , John F. Cryan
    •  & David A. Slattery
  • Research Highlight |

    Three studies show that synaptic interactions between neurons and glioma cells or cells of breast-cancer-to-brain metastases may promote tumour growth.

    • Natasha Bray
  • Perspective |

    Dopamine signals are implicated in not only reporting reward prediction errors but also various probabilistic computations. In this Opinion article, Gershman and Uchida propose that these different roles for dopamine can be placed within a common reinforcement learning framework.

    • Samuel J. Gershman
    •  & Naoshige Uchida
  • Research Highlight |

    An innovative technique shows that mitochondria of different cell types in the CNS show differences in protein expression.

    • Natasha Bray
  • Research Highlight |

    Detailed transcriptomic analysis of cells within the cortical layers of the human medium temporal gyrus revealed surprising homology with existing mouse transcriptomic data — but also some important differences.

    • Sian Lewis
  • Review Article |

    Astrocytes in the spinal cord and brain are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathological pain signalling. Ji and colleagues here describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which astrocytes contribute to the induction and maintenance of chronic pain and itch.

    • Ru-Rong Ji
    • , Christopher R. Donnelly
    •  & Maiken Nedergaard
  • Research Highlight |

    In mice, CREB–Zfp189 interactions in the prefrontal cortex drive a transcriptional network that increases resilience to chronic social defeat stress.

    • Katharine H. Wrighton
  • Review Article |

    The brain’s default network is thought to comprise a set of regions in the association cortex. Randy Buckner and Lauren DiNicola review findings from humans, monkeys and rodents indicating that multiple subnetworks make up the default network and explore the implications of these observations.

    • Randy L. Buckner
    •  & Lauren M. DiNicola
  • Review Article |

    The perirhinal cortex forms part of the medial temporal lobe and has an established role in episodic memory formation. Yasushi Miyashita reviews the neural circuitry and the function of the perirhinal cortex and proposes that it acts as a hub linking episodic and semantic memory.

    • Yasushi Miyashita
  • Research Highlight |

    Two studies demonstrate the power of combining induced pluripotent stem cell technology with CRISPR-mediated gene editing to investigate neurobiological mechanisms.

    • Katherine Whalley
  • Review Article |

    Humans and other animals use spatial hearing to rapidly localize events in the environment. Here, van der Heijden and colleagues discuss the latest insights from neurophysiological, neuroimaging and computational modelling studies into the cortical encoding of sound location.

    • Kiki van der Heijden
    • , Josef P. Rauschecker
    • , Beatrice de Gelder
    •  & Elia Formisano
  • Research Highlight |

    The 15q11.2 copy number deletion, which is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, is found in rodents to result in reduced myelin thickness, lower functional connectivity and motor deficits.

    • Sian Lewis
  • Research Highlight |

    In zebrafish, pioneer axons of the dorsal root ganglia require the release of synaptic-like vesicles to enter the spinal cord, suggesting that synaptic vesicles have a role in circuit formation ahead of synaptogenesis.

    • Katharine H. Wrighton
  • Research Highlight |

    A new study reports that a nociceptin circuit limits motivation during reward-seeking behaviour in mice.

    • Grant Otto